D

d.C.

dahayodzo

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec daha, "hand," and yodzo, "metate," a flat stone platform for grinding corn on) mano, a stone "rolling pin" for grinding corn.

dahayodzo

Danza del sol

daykeeper

deep structure

a linguistic term associated with the ability, the "competence," a speaker has to produce language that is syntactically, phonologically, and semantically "adequate." Deep structure or competence is contrasted with surface structure or "performance," which refers to the actual production of speech itself. It is argued by some linguists that one is born with these deep structures, syntactic structures, and that they represent a kind of universal grammar.

desangramiento

despellejar

Diego de Landa

difrasis

digging stick

dintel

Dios de la Lluvia

diphrasis

dogma

a system of doctrines followed by a religious sect and considered to be representative of absolute truth. A system of ideas, principles, beliefs and/or opinions considered to be the truth.

dogma

un sistema de doctrinas seguidas por un grupo religioso y que se considera representan la verdad absoluta. Un sistema de ideas, principios, creencias, y/o opiniones que se considera que son la verdad.

Dominican

dominicanos

Dresden Codex

one of four surviving Postclassic Maya codices, the others being the Codices Madrid (or Tro-Cortesianus), Paris, and Grolier. The Dresden Codex is currently housed in the Dresden Library, Germany.

duchi ya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite eye, literally "beans."

duchi ya

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) ojo de elite, literalmente "frijoles."

duhua

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) arrow.

duhua

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) flecha.

duhuaya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite foot, literally "arrow."

duhuaya

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) pie de elite, literalmente "flecha."

duta

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) water.

duta

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) agua.

duta cuij

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) clear water.

duta cuij

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) agua clara.

dza-

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) causative prefix.

dza-

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) prefijo de causa.

dzaco

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) good, beautiful, precious.

dzaco

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) bueno, bello, precioso.

dzadzuta

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) polishing instrument.

dzadzuta

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) instrumento de pulido.

dzahui

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) rain.

dzahui

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) lluvia.

dzehua

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) cacao.

dzehua

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) cacao.

dziitni tnama

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) Roman nose, literally "wide nose."

dziitni tnama

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) nariz romana, literalmente "nariz ancha."

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) Mixteca Alta, literally "High Rain Place."

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) Mixteca Alta, literalmente "Lugar de la Lluvia Alta."

dzita

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) tortilla.

dzita

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) tortilla.

dziyo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) skirt.

dziyo

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) falda.

dzoo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) manta, cape.

dzoo

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) manta, capa.

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) codex page, literally "manta of skin from the earth."

dzuta

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to polish.

dzuta

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) pulir.

E

earth monster

many groups in Precolumbian Mesoamerica thought of the earth's surface as a giant crocodilian animal floating upon the ocean. The earth itself was thus often personified as an "earth monster," depicted as a disembodied crocodilian head with jaws wide open to devour sacrifices. Illustration: A corn-haired maiden rises from an earth monster's jaws in the upper right corner of page 49 of the Codex Vienna.

ecosistema

ecosystem

ecological community and its environment functioning together systematically.

ecotone

zone between two ecological zones where the species of each overlap.

ecotono

ee

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) one or nine (depending on tone).

ee

(mixteco de Teposcolula, siglo XVI) uno o nueve (dependiendo del tono).

ee ita

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec ee, "one," and ita, "flower") one flower.

ee ita

(del mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI, ee, "uno," e ita, "flor") una flor.

Ehecatl

(Nahuatl) Aztec wind god.

Ehecatl

(nahuatl) dios azteca del viento.

Eliade, Mircea

(1907-1986) Romanian-born novelist, philosopher, and scholar in the history of religions. His academic work centered on cross-cultural comparisons and a search for similarities in religious archetypes. Important scholarly works include THE MYTH OF ETERNAL RETURN (1949, tr. 1954), RITES AND SYMBOLS OF INTIATION: The Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth (1958), SHAMANISM: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (1951, tr. 1964), THE QUEST: History and Meaning in Religion (1969), and the three volume A HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS IDEAS (1978-1985). Eliade taught in the Divinity School at the University of Chicago from 1956 to 1983.

elite

(from Latin eligere, "to pick out, to choose") the dominant class in hierarchical societies. In Mesoamerica, the elite were often believed to be descended from the gods; Mesoamerican rulers were selected from the elite class.

enagua

(Spanish) skirt.

enagua

falda.

encantamiento

encomendero

encomienda

system of grants of rights to indigenous labor given by the Spanish crown during the sixteenth century. The encomendero was the recipient of an encomienda.

epigraphy

(from Greek epi- "upon," and graphein "to write") writing, or the study focused on interpreting and deciphering written texts.

estela

[plural estelas] (del griego estela, "bloque parado o pedestal") monumento de piedra en forma vertical, grabado o sin grabar. Los olmecas, zapotecas y mayas erigieron estelas.

estructura profunda

estuco

recubrimiento de yeso para las paredes. Ver yeso, gypsum.

ethnicity

(from Greek ethnos, "nation") as defined by Frederick Barth, ethnicity is a form of social organization/social identity in which individuals define themselves as part of a group, in contrast to the members of other groups, by reference to the possession/non-possession of specific cultural features. The creation and maintenance of ethnic identities is thus focused on the maintenance of a boundary of insiders/outsiders. The traits/cultural features significant in establishing ethnic identity cannot be determined on the basis of "objective" similarities and differences between groups. Rather, key ethnic traits are those that members of the ethnic groups in question define as important.

ethnobiology

(from Greek ethnos, "nation," bios, "life," and legios, "speech, discourse") indigenous understandings and categorizations of the natural world, and the study of such understandings.

ethnobotany

(from Greek ethnos, "nation," and botane, "plant") indigenous understandings and categorizations of plants, and the study of such understandings.

ethnography

(from Greek ethnos, "nation," and graphein "to write") the study of, and written description of, human groups and their culture. The practice of ethnography is by an ethnographer and results in an ethnography or study of a particular culture group.

ethnohistory

the study of, and practice of writing about, non-Western societies in the past, typically using written documents produced during periods of colonial rule.

etnicidad

etnohistoria

euhemerism

(after Euhemerus, a fourth-century Sicilian author who argued that Greek gods were originally moral men and women who had been deified) the practice of transforming deceased humans into gods; the deification of human heroes.

euhemerismo

EZLN

F

faction

a faction is a small political unit within a larger structure; a factionalized political landscape is one divided among many small conflicting groups.

feminism

the doctrine (person) that advocates equal rights for women as for men in professional, economic, political, cultural, and other arenas.

feminismo

Festival del Fuego Nuevo

Festival of the New Fire

Mexica ritual that marked the beginning of a new 52-year calendar cycle. All fires were to be extinguished, and on midnight of the first day of the new cycle, priests on a mountain in the Valley of Mexico--Citlaltepec, "Hill of the Star"--would watch for the rising of the Pleiades. When these stars passed overhead, a warrior would be sacrificed by heart excision and a new fire would be drilled in his opened chest cavity. Runners with torches would then carry the newly lit flames to rekindle fires in the main temples, from which fires in lesser temples and houses would be lighted again.

filogenia

(del griego filein, "amor" y logos "palabra, discurso") estudio de la historia de los idiomas, especialmente de los cambios en la forma y significado de las palabras con el tiempo.

firedrill

an instrument for creating fire used throughout the Americas, usually consisting of a stick and a drilling board. The stick is rapidly turned back and forth on the drilling board; the resultant friction produces heat used for ignition.

First Nations

is a term used by Native Peoples, especially in Canada, to emphasize the aboriginal roots of their people, politics, social organization and culture. "Indian" peoples in Canada today prefer to be known as First Nations, except for some groups, such as the Inuit, who prefer "Inuit." First Nations peoples are identified in the Canadian Constitution as one of the founding nations of Canada, along with the English and French. See Native American, indigenous.

fitolitos

flay

to remove the skin of a human or animal. Flaying victims alive was one form of sacrifice practiced in Mesoamerica. Illustrations: a flayed jaguar face is part of the personal name of Lady 11 Serpent on the right-hand side of page 27 of the Codex Nuttall; a deity dressed in a flayed human skin (Lord 7 Rain) is shown in the temple at the bottom of page 33 of the Codex Nuttall.

flechador

Florentine Codex

folio

(from Latin folium, "leaf") a sheet of paper or parchment which is only numbered on the front side. Folio numbering was common in the sixteenth century; the 1593 VOCABULARIO EN LENGUA MISTECA has a folio numbering system.

folio

Formativa

Formative

the first of the three main periods of Precolumbian Mesoamerican chronology, dating from 1500 B.C. to A.D. 200. The Formative saw the rise of the first stratified societies in Mesoamerica (with La Venta and San Lorenzo in the Olmec heartland perhaps being the most famous) as well as the origins of a number of strategies and symbols of elite rulership, including monumental architecture. A number of Mesoamerican beliefs about the universe and its supernatural inhabitants are first seen iconographically in the imagery of the Formative, as discussed by Karl Taube in a number of seminal articles.

Fourth World

categorization of indigenous peoples added to the First/Second/Third World global division scheme developed in the social sciences in the 1950s. Often refers specifically to indigenous nations existing within other nations.

Fraile

franciscanos

Franciscans

members of the Order of Friars Minor established in 1209 by Italian priest Giovanni Francesco Bernardone (Saint Francis). The Franciscans were the first religious order to arrive in New Spain (1521); their initial missionary efforts were focused on Central Mexico and, later, the Yucatan.

Fray

(from Latin frater, "brother") Spanish for Brother, member of a Christian religious order, especially the mendicant orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians, Carmelites).

friar

(from Latin frater, "brother") see Fray.

friar

N/A

frieze

(from Latin frisium, "border") decorative architectural band.

friso