G

gaming

the preferred word for gambling by pro-gambling advocates.

gaming

gender

(from Latin genus, "descent, origin") socially constructed sexual categories, separate from (but often related to) biological sexual differences.

generative grammar

most associated with the linguist Noam Chomsky who in the 1950s proposed that underlying grammatical rules generate accurate production of grammatically correct sentences and utterances by speakers. The rules of generative grammar are not the same as prescriptive rules of grammar that specify such "rules" as: split infinitives are "grammatically incorrect" or sentences shall not end with prepositions. Generative rules of grammar, in contrast, refer to the grammatical patterns that occur in any given language and that every speaker of that language can generate while speaking (based on David Crystal, THE CAMBRIDGE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LANGUAGE, Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 97).

gesso

(from Greek gypsos, "gypsum, chalk") a fine plaster paint derived from gypsum, used in Mesoamerica to prime the surface of codex pages and thus provide a white background for subsequent inscription. Gesso is also used in the Western European painting tradition to prepare canvases.

glifo

glottal stop

(from Greek glottis, "the mouth of the throat") speech sound produced when air flow is briefly cut off at the back of the throat. The classic example of the glottal stop in English is the pause (represented as a dash) in "uh-oh."

glyph

(from Greek glyphein, to carve) general term for the units of Mesoamerican writing.

grafema

granadas de china

(Spanish) pomegranates.

granadas de china

N/A

grapheme

(from Greek graphein, "to write, to draw") the letters/signs/visual symbols used in a writing system to represent meaningful sounds.

greca

(from Latin Graecus, "Greek") an interlocking repeated pattern. Illustration: Mentors: Geoffrey McCafferty.

greca

greenstone

(and jade) from the Formative period on, Mesoamerican cultures valued green and green-blue minerals as materials symbolic of water and agricultural fertility. The terms "greenstone," "jade," "jadeite," and "social jade" have all been used to describe this general category of minerals. Such "social jades" in Mesoamerica include jadeite (NaAlSi2O6), serpentine, bowenite, soapstone, albitite, and quartzite.

Gregorian Calendar

Gregorian Calendar: a modification of the Julian calendar introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in A.D. 1582. The Gregorian calendar is the one most commonly used in the West today.

Grupo Borgia

Guerra de Castas

Guerrero

contemporary Mexican state northwest of Oaxaca along the Pacific coast and to the south and southwest of Mexico City.

Guerrero

gutural

gypsum

(from Greek gypsos, "gypsum, chalk") a mineral--CaSO2 (H2O)2--used to make plaster. Gypsum is heated to drive out its water content; it is then powdered and when water is added forms plaster. See gesso, stucco.

gypsum

H

hacendado

hacienda

(from old Spanish facienda, "estate") an elite plantation-estate, typically with exploitative labor practices. A hacendado is the landowner of such an estate.

Hapsburgs

("Hawk's Castle," the name of the ancestral home in Switzerland) Central European royal family, attested as early as the eleventh century, Holy Roman Emperors from 1452. When Charles V married into the Spanish throne, he founded a dynasty of Spanish Hapsburg emperors that ruled from 1516 to 1700.

Hasburgos

hegemonia

hegemony

(from Greek hegemon, "leader") the dominance in society of a single ideology or political power.

henequen

fiber from an agave plant (Agave fourcroydes) native to the Yucatan peninsula and (incorrectly) known as sisal hemp in the United States. Used since Precolumbian times by the Maya to make ropes and rope products, the invention of the mechanical twine knotter in the 1870s was one of the catalysts to a century of intense commercial production in Campeche and the western Yucatan from 1850 to 1950.

hieroglyphics

(from Greek hieros, "sacred," and glyphein, "to carve") term applied by the Greeks to Egyptian writing, and subsequently applied by Europeans to the writing systems of Mesoamerica. See glyph.

historia

historiography

the study of the methods and techniques of historical research and the writing of histories.

history

according to Webster's Dictionary: "A learning or knowing by inquiry; the knowledge of facts and events, so obtained; hence, a formal statement of such information; a narrative; a description; a written record; as, the history of a patient's case; the history of a legislative bill. Also, a systematic, written account of events, particularly of those affecting a nation, institution, science, or art, and usually connected with a philosophical explanation of their causes; a true story, as distinguished from a romance--distinguished also from annals, which relate simply the facts and events of each year, in strict chronological order; from biography, which is the record of an individual's life; and from memoir, which is history composed from personal experience, observation, and memory" (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.). In more recent times the "objectivity" and "inclusivity" of telling history has been called into question by such groups as African-Americans, Latinos, Native Peoples, and women. Feminists, for example, have referred to history as "his-story" (emphasizing the prevalence of males in historical accounts) and have proposed a "her-story" (emphasizing the new inclusion of women into history books) to complement his-story.

hoho

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) five.

hoho

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) cinco.

Hombres de los nubes

Hombres de Piedra

Hombres Rayados

ver Hombres de los nubes.

Homer

a Greek epic poet most associated with THE ILIAD and THE ODYSSEY, which are attributed to him. Homeric pertains to something heroic or something epic-like. It also refers to hexameter verse, so called because it was used by Homer in his epics.

Homero

hot/cold medical system

in traditional Mesoamerican belief, a healthy body is one that maintains an equilibrium between "hot" and "cold" temperature extremes. Illness is caused by imbalance; that is, a sick person's body is either too hot or too cold. Treatment of such imbalances (or prevention of imbalances when a person is in a vulnerable state, such as after childbirth) often involves eating or avoiding certain types of foods, which are themselves categorized as "hot" or "cold."

huaco

(16th century Mixtec, ritual calendrical vocabulary) flower.

huaco

huahi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) house, building, temple.

huahi

(mixteco de Teposcolula, del siglo XVI) casa, edifico, templo.

huahiandehui

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec huahi, "house, building, temple" and andehui, "sky, heaven") Temple of Heaven, a structure at the site of Tilantongo.

huahiandehui

huaraches

(Spanish) sandals with soles cut from car tires.

huaraches

sandalias con suelas elaboradas con el hule de las llantas de coche.

huico

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) cloud, fiesta.

huico

(mixteco de Teposcolula, del siglo XVI) nube, fiesta.

huipilli

(or huipil, Nahuatl huipilli) a Mesoamerican woman's dress, rectangular in shape with slitted openings for arms and head.

huipilli

(o huipil, nahualt huipilli) vestido mesoamericano para las mujeres, con forma rectangular con cortes para los brazos y la cabeza.

Huitzilopochtli

(Nahuatl huitzil, "hummingbird," and opochtli, "left-hand side," thus "Hummingbird on the Left") a Mexica patron deity who guided the Mexica ancestors during their migration from Aztlan and whose sacred bundle was housed in one of the two buildings on the summit of the Templo Mayor pyramid in Tenochtitlan.

Huitzilopochtli

huiyu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) reed, field.

huiyu

humoral medicine

(from Latin humor, "moisture") medical system based on the idea that the body contains four humors, fluids that need to be kept in proper balance for a person to remain healthy. The four humors are phlegm, yellow bile, black bile, and blood; each is either "hot" or "cold" and "dry" or "moist." The humoral system was the basis of European medicine in the sixteenth century. Traditional Mesoamerican medical beliefs focus on a balance of hot/cold bodily temperatures and are sometimes likened to humoral systems. Illustration: Mentors: Ellen Messer.

I

iconic

(from Greek eikon, "likeness, image, portrait") pictoral or representational.

iconography

(from Greek eikon, "likeness, image, portrait" and graphein, "to write") a system of visual representation, and the study of such representations.

ideology

(from Greek idea, "idea," and legios, "speech, discourse") a system of beliefs explaining and justifying the nature of the world and society. Similar to cosmology.

idioma

(Spanish) language.

idioma

N/A

idioma indo-americano

idolatry

(from Greek eidolon, "double, copy, apparition," and latria, "worship") the worship of manufactured images, a classification usually applied to the beliefs of others.

idzo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) rabbit.

idzo

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) conejo.

idzu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) deer. Illustration: Lord 12 Wind descends to earth on a Sacred Cord on pages 18 and 19a of the Codex Nuttall. Illustration: a long, white, claw-shaped labret juts from the lower lip of Lord 13 Deer as he is captured and sacrificed along the bottom of page 12 of the Codex Selden.

idzu

ina

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) dog.

ina

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) perro.

incantation

(from Latin in-, "in," and cantare, "to sing") a magic spell or formula, and the utterance of such a formula.

incense

(from Latin incensum, "that which is set on fire") see copal.

incienso

indigenous

indigo

(from Greek indikon, "Indian (substance)," referring to blue dye from India) a dark blue dye derived from plants of the genus Indigofera. Indigo was an important Mesoamerican export to Europe during the sixteenth century.

indio americano

Indo-American language

languages spoken by the indigenous people of the New World.

informe

(Spanish) report.

informe

N/A

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) six.

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) seis.

Inquisition

(from Latin inquirere, "to seek for, inquire") from Spanish Inquisition, which was established in 1478 by Pope Sixtus IV at the request of King Fernando V and Queen Isabel I. It was created to enforce religious orthodoxy in the unified Spanish kingdom being created by the "reconquista." The Inquisition was subsequently extended to New Spain to punish both heretical Spaniards as well as lapsed indigenous converts. Structurally, the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain was headed by a crown-nominated, pope-approved Grand Inquisitor. He appointed five men to the Council of the Supreme and General Inquisition, and together they oversaw the creation of courts and provincial tribunals and the appointment of local inquisitors. Included in these appointments was the Mexico City-based Apostolic Inquisitor, who oversaw the Holy Office's work in New Spain. He appointed his own hierarchy of subordinates (the Mexico City-based legal advisory council, judges, and defense attorneys for the accused, as well as local inquisitors) and also created an inquisitorial jail in Mexico City and hired/paid inquisitorial functionaries (scribes, persons in charge of feeding prisoners, persons who arrested accused subjects, etc.).

Instituto Nacional Indigenista, INI

instrumento para taladrar el fuego

integracion vertical

INTERPOL

an international organization, which has coordinated police in international co-operation between the Member States Police Forces since 1923.

INTERPOL

intra-linguistic

internal linguistic references within a text, either embedded in the words themselves or found between juxtaposed words or sentences, which shape the meaning of the text and give the interpretation of the text multiple layers of meaning (e.g., puns).

ita

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) flower.

ita

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) flor.

Itzcoatl

(Nahuatl itztli, "obsidian," and coatl, "serpent" or "twin") fourth Mexica ruler at Tenochtitlan, who ruled from A.D. 1427 to 1440. Itzcoatl has an infamous (and possibly unjust [see Elizabeth Boone's discussion in "History or Propaganda?"]) reputation for burning the books of Mexica history and having them rewritten.

Itzcoatl

Ixtaccihuatl

Ixtaccihuatl

ixtle

(Nahuatl ixtli, "maguey fiber") a fiber from the leaves of the genus Agave used by Mesoamericans for spinning and weaving. See maguey.

ixtle

iya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite, saint.

iya

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) elite, santo.