P

Padre

(Spanish) Father, priest.

Padre

panela

(Spanish) loaf of brown sugar.

panela

parentesco

Passamaquoddy

a tribe of approximately 3,000 Indians (Native Peoples) in the eastern part of the state of Maine.

Passamaquoddy

tribu de aproximadamente 3,000 indios en la parte este del estado de Maine.

pasto malinalli

patriline

(from Latin pater, "father") a genealogical line of descent traced through male relatives back to a common ancestor. See matriline, matriliny.

patrimonio cultural

Paul Kirchhoff

pencas

(Spanish) the pointed leaves of the maguey plant.

pencas

viaje de un lugar a otro.

peregrination

a journey from place to place.

petate

(Nahuatl petlatl) woven palm leaf mat. Illustration: Lady 10 Eagle and Lord 4 Eagle sit together on a petate at the top of page 2 of the Codex Selden.

petate

philology

(from Greek philein, "to love," and logos "word, speech") the study of the history of languages, especially the changes in the form and meaning of words over time.

phylogeny

the sequence of events composing the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of plant or animal. Also, the historical growth of a group of people (a tribe or "race").

phytoliths

(from Greek phyton, "plant," and lithos, "stone") literally "stone (i.e. fossilized) plants," but more generally plant remains from the past, such as those recovered archaeologically.

piedra verde

Placa de Leiden

pochteca

(Nahuatl pochtecah) traveling merchants, long-distance traders, particularly associated with the Postclassic Aztecs.

pochteca

polis

polity

(from Greek polis, "city-state") a political unit. The basic Mixtec political unit, for example, was called a yuhuitayu.

(from Nahuatl pochtli, "smoke," and tepetl, "mountain," thus "Smoking Mountain") volcano (elevation 5,452 m/17,887 ft) to the southeast of Mexico City and to the west of Cholula and Puebla. "Twin volcano" to Ixtaccihuatl.

Popol Vuh

Popol Vuh

Postclassic

the third and final main period in Precolumbian chronology, spanning ca. A.D. 900 to A.D. 1521 (the fall of the Mexica capital of Tenochtitlan to the Spaniards).

Pre-Hispanic

see Precolumbian, Spanish Conquest.

Precolombino

Precolumbian

literally "before [the arrival of] Columbus [in the New World]," this term is used more generally to refer to the time period (and cultural practices) before the arrival of the Spaniards, the date of which varies throughout the New World. See Spanish Conquest.

PRI

PRI

Primera Naciones

progressive aspect

in linguistics, "aspect" refers to whether or not an act is completed or is ongoing, and "tense" refers to when an event took place (past, present, or future). "Progressive" or "incompletive" aspect indicates that an act is still taking place. An example of the progressive aspect is: "I am going to school." "I used to go to school" is an example of the completive aspect.

propaganda

the technique of influencing human action by the manipulation of representation of a given set of information; by means of persuasion. This representation may take place via spoken, written, pictorial, or musical media, or any combination thereof since the advent of modern media. Both publicity as well as advertising fall into the category of propaganda. The word was first used most commonly by the Roman Catholic Church in reference to the dissemination of its doctrine, and was later appropriated and adapted by the Marxist theorists. The task of propagandists is to locate attitudes favorable to their purpose at hand, to reverse obstructive attitudes, to win over the indifferent voters/listeners/readers, or at least to prevent them from becoming antagonistic toward the propagandists' purpose.

propaganda

Puebla

contemporary Mexican state and its capital city, located 125 km/78 miles southeast of Mexico City.

Puebla

pueblo

(Spanish) town; village; people.

pueblo

N/A

pulque

a sweet, milky white alcoholic drink made from the fermented sap of the maguey plant.

pulque

Q

qmi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) four.

qmi

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) cuatro.

qualificadores

qualifiers

in Mixtec writing, small pictures added to place sign substantives to specify the location being represented.

Que'a Sina

(twentieth-century Jaltepec-Tilantongo Mixtec) Real Place that is Opened.

Que'a Sina

quechquemitl

(Nahuatl) triangular women's cape. Maarten Jansen has suggested that the Mixtec term for this garment is dzico, a term which (depending on tonal pronunciation) may also mean "virtue," "fame," "goodness," "beauty." Thus quechquemitls in personal names in the Mixtec codices may be functioning as rebuses for these other meanings. Thus the name Lady 6 Monkey "Feathered Serpent Quechquemitl" may be better translated as Lady 3 Flint "Virtue of the Feathered Serpent."

quechquemitl

quedze

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) olla, jar.

quedze

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) olla, frasco.

quetzal

(from Nahuatl quetzalli, "quetzal bird") a tropical bird, Pharomachrus mocinno , with iridescent green feathers, red breast, and 24-inch long iridescent green tail feathers appended to a 14 to 15-inch body. Habitat: highland cloud forests from Chiapas south to Panama. Its tail feathers were prized throughout Mesoamerica from the Formative period on; the Aztecs compared these feathers to the leaves of the maize plant. Illustration: a quetzal is drawn in the waters of the river drawn at the bottom of page 33 of the Codex Nuttall. The so-called Moctezuma headdress was made of quetzal feathers. See Debate section on Cultural Property, Christian Feest.

quetzal

Quetzalcoatl

(Nahuatl quetzalli, "quetzal bird," and coatl, "serpent" or "twin") Aztec name for an important feathered serpent deity found in religious traditions throughout Mesoamerica, associated with wind, rain, and rulership. In Aztec narratives, Quetzalcoatl is also the name of a possibly mythical ruler at the site of Tula. See Kukulcan.

Quetzalcoatl

qui

(sixteenth-century Mixtec, ritual calendrical vocabulary) nine.

qui

(mixteco de siglo XVI, vocabulario del calendario ritual) nueve.

Quirigua

Classic Maya site in northwest Honduras with a political history closely linked to the nearby site of Copan. Quirigua's inscriptional record spans A.D. 478-A.D. 810.

Quirigua

quivi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) days.

quivi

R

Rain God

known as Chac in Mayan, Tlaloc in Nahuatl, and Dzahui in Mixtec, this deity is often shown with blue rings (or "goggles") around his eyes and a blue bar, downturned at both ends, above his mouth.

rebozo

(Spanish) shawl.

rebozo

reina-reinado

ver yuhuitayu.

repatriar

repatriate

the return of people and/or cultural items to the country or people or nation of origin. For example, to repatriate art works, cultural materials, people, and bones to the originating peoples and/or country/nation. See NAGPARA and cultural patrimony.

reservation

a tract of land set aside by the federal government for Native Americans. In the United States and Canada, reservation refers to land set aside or recognized by the federal or state government as the territory of an Indian tribe and within which a tribe is recognized as having the right to exercise at least some degree of sovereignty. In the United States, reservation land cannot be alienated without the consent of the United States Congress.

ritual calendar

260-day calendar used throughout Mesoamerica, composed of twenty day signs combined with thirteen numeric values. The adjective "ritual" refers to the use of this calendar in divination and in naming.

Rivera, Diego

Mexican artist (1889-1956) most known for his mural paintings which he began to paint in the 1920s in Mexico directly following the Mexican Revolution. He was known as a "revolutionary painter" and was a member of the Communist Party. In addition to his murals with revolutionary themes, he also painted and became famous for his portraits of patrons and lovers and for his great murals of the industrial era (e.g., the automobile industry). He painted a number of murals in the United States. All of Rivera's paintings are considered cultural patrimony by the Mexican government.

Rivera, Diego

roman nouvelle

refers to a style of novel developed in France in the 1950s that was interior oriented and introspective with interior dialogue. It was not focused on outside reality or naturalism.

roman nouvelle