S

sa

(sixteenth-century Mixtec, ritual calendrical vocabulary) seven.

sa

sa: (mixteco del siglo XVI, vocabulario del calendario ritual) siete.

sa-

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) place.

sa-

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) lugar.

saco

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to write, to compose in colors, to compose a song.

saco

sacred bundle

sacred bundles were one of the most important religious objects for people throughout Mesoamerica. Sacred bundles were composed of yards of cloth wrapped around a precious object--such as a statue of a deity or the bones of a deceased ancestor. The distinction between a sacred bundle and a mortuary bundle is thus not clear-cut. Illustration: Lord 10 Lizard and Lord 3 Flower are showed creating two sacred bundles at the bottom of page 3 of the Codex Selden.

Sacred Cord

a white twisted cord that descends from the sky in Mixtec iconography, perhaps a representation of the star path or Milky Way.

sacuaa

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) deer.

sacuaa

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) venado.

sacuij

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) green.

sacuij

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) verde.

saha

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) royal vessel, footprints, foot.

saha

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) nave real, huellas, pie.

(ca. 1499-1590) Franciscan friar who arrived in Mexico in 1529 and who from 1559-1579 compiled the Florentine Codex with the help of indigenous collaborators.

sami nuu

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec sami, "burned," and nuu, "face") [People with] Burned Faces, Mixtec term for Central Mexicans or Toltecs.

sami nuu

San Andres Accords

a political document signed on February 16, 1996, in San Andres Larrainzar, Chiapas, Mexico. The EZLN and the Mexican federal government signed the first documents of the San Andres Accords, which dealt with "Indigenous Rights and Culture." Through a series of legal, political, and social measures, these accords were designed to resolve the inequities in Mexico regarding the situation of indigenous peoples, democracy and justice in the whole country, social well-being, economic development, and the situation of women. To arrive at the signing of this first set of accords meant a long process of reflection, consultation, and debate among indigenous communities, peoples, and organizations. Academics, specialists, and government bureaucrats helped to write them. The EZLN brought the different indigenous peoples together to design a new relationship with the state, the nation, and the indigenous peoples. The reforms won by the indigenous people are new footpaths, which can be used by other sectors of the population in order to win new rights. "In San Andres it was agreed to establish a new relationship between the State and indigenous peoples, in which the federal government commits itself to regulate its actions in accordance with the following principles: Self-determination and autonomy: The State commits itself not to intervene unilaterally in the internal organization nor in affairs which concern indigenous people in issues of the use of their resources or the arrangement of their priorities. This provision obliges the State to give impetus to a matching criteria in its programs, budgets and projects, which of course, translates into the necessary participation of indigenous peoples. Participation: The State should promote the participation of the peoples and communities in institutional actions, in the design, operation and evaluation, and respect its forms of internal organization in order to fortify its capacity to be decisive actors of its own development. Pluralism: The politics of the State should be to foment a pluralist orientation, to actively combat all forms of discrimination and to correct the economic and social injustices. Sustainability: To secure the endurance of nature and the necessity of the State, in agreement with the communities, to promote actions to rehabilitate the territories and contribute to the creation of conditions which can secure the sustainability of the practices of production and of life. Holistic Approach: The State should promote the holistic action of institutions and levels of government which intercede in the life of the communities, avoiding partial practices which fracture public policy" (Jorge Javier Elorriaga Berdegue, journalist).

sasacuino yeque taa tutu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) writing box, literally "place where the writing bone is kept inside."

sasacuino yeque taa tutu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) caja de escribir, literalmente " lugar donde es guardado el hueso de escribir."

sasihi cuij

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec sasihi, "death," and cuij, "eternal") eternal death.

sasihi cuij

(del mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI sasihi, "muerte," y cuij, "eterno") muerte eterna.

sata

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) shoulder.

sata

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) hombro.

satu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) loincloth.

satu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) taparrabos.

sauna

sayu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) non-elite genitalia.

sayu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) genitales de no-elite.

secuestrador

seguridad social

dinero o bienes que otorga el gobierno a la gente con bajos recursos.

self-determination

in the U.S. "self-determination" means the right of tribes to administer federally appropriated funds and, within the limits of federal regulation, decide how they should be spent. See San Andres Accords.

semiotics

(from Greek semeion, "sign") the study of human signs and symbols, a discipline proposed in the early twentieth century by Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure.

sequestrator

(from Latin sequester, "standing apart") something that causes separation.

shaman

(from Siberian Tungus saman, "to know in an ecstatic manner") "shamanism" is a general category used in anthropology to describe a religious tradition centered around a "shaman," a man or woman who is able (typically in public, before an audience) to communicate with, and mediate between, the worlds of gods and humans, humans and animals, and the living and the dead. Such mediations are possible because shamans directly possess, or are possessed by, supernatural powers. Mircea Eliade is often credited with reviving Western academic interest in shamanism with his 1951 book Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy.

si

(sixteenth-century Mixtec, ritual calendrical vocabulary) ten, eleven, and thirteen.

si

(mixteco del siglo XVI, vocabulario del calendario ritual) diez, once, y trece.

Siberia

a large region of central and eastern Russia that exists between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean annexed by Russia during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Siberia

sichi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) path.

sichi

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) camino.

sihi

(16th century Mixtec, ritual calendrical vocabulary) death.

sihi

sincretismo

siyo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) comal, a flat griddle for cooking tortillas.

siyo

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) comal, plancha plana para cocinar tortillas.

skyband

Mesoamerican iconography from the Formative period onwards visually represented the sky and heavens by drawing a patterned rectangular band across the top of an image. The patterning of this skyband varied across time and space; for the Postclassic Mixtec, skybands were typically blue and decorated with disembodied eyeballs, which represented shining stars.

a sixteenth-century Mexican nun. Long known for her poetry and plays, she has more recently become an icon of creativity, intelligence, and women's rights for playwrights, feminists, and others.

sovereignty

complete independence, self-government; the right of a people to be governed by their own laws. In the U.S. Indian tribes have all sovereignty powers (other than the right to treat with foreign powers) unless and until they are withdrawn by Congress. Congress is considered to have plenary power to limit tribal sovereignty at any time, although the federal courts have narrowly construed attempts by Congress to do so (c.f. autonomy).

Spanish Conquest

spear thrower

a hooked stick used as a throwing lever for spears; the use of a spear thrower improves speed and accuracy. Illustration: Deities Lord 1 Motion and Lord 1 Death both brandish spears in spear throwers at the bottom right hand corner of page 1 of the Codex Selden.

spindle whorl

perforated disk, commonly of clay or gourd slices, used in spinning thread. A pointed shaft, or spindle, would be thrust through the whorl's hole and the spindle-and-whorl combination would be twirled like a top. The twisting of the spindle and whorl helped to draw raw fibers into thread. Illustration: Lady 13 Flower holds a red-shafted spindle, wrapped in white thread and topped with a blue spindle whorl, at the top center of page 19b of the Codex Nuttall.

star path

steambath, steam house

see sweatbath.

stela

[plural stelae] (from Greek stele, "standing block or slab") upright stone monument, carved or uncarved. The Olmec, Zapotec, and Maya all erected stelae.

Stone Men

fanged beings who fight in the War of Heaven. Their name derives from their skin, which has the red, blue, and gold diagonal stripes that signify "stone" in the codices. The paired bumps on their silhouette also indicate their hard skin. Illustration: three stone men fight in the upper left-hand corner of page 20 of the Codex Nuttall.

storyboards

sketches drawn to outline in sequence the plot, action, and characters found in the various scenes of a film, animation, television show, advertisement.

Striped Men

see Cloud Men.

stucco

plaster. See gesso, gypsum.

substantives

substantivos

Sumerian Mesopotamia

Sumer is the oldest known civilization in the Near East (circa 3000-2000 B.C.E). Located in Southern Mesopotamia it is known from sites such as Ur and Nippur and from its cuneiform documents.

Sun Dance

nineteenth-century Plains Indians religious practice dedicated to the sun and involving self-mortification.

sweatbath

Mesoamerican equivalent to the sauna or sweatlodge; an enclosed structure in which water is splashed on heated rocks to generate steam for cleansing and medicinal purposes. Called a temescal in Nahuatl. Illustration: a smoking white sweatbath is the focus for offerings in the upper right-hand corner of page 16 of the Codex Nuttall.

syncretism

(from Greek synkretismos, the alliance of two groups against a third) the combination and interaction of two different religious traditions.

T

taa

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to write.

taa

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) escribir.

tachi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) wind.

tachi

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) viento.

tacu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) book, to write, to paint, to listen.

tacu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) libro, escribir, pintar, escuchar.

tamale

(Nahuatl tamalli) Mesoamerican food consisting of maize flour wrapped in maize husks and steamed or boiled. The tamale was the primary form of consuming maize for the Classic Maya. Illustration: a round blue tamale tops the bowl of tortillas held by Lord 10 Grass in the upper right-hand corner of page 15 of the Codex Nuttall.

tamale

taxonomy

(western term) the classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates "natural" relationships. Taxonomic organization of species is hierarchical so that each species belongs to a genus, each genus to a family, and so on through order, class, phylum, and kingdom. The hierarchy is based on evolutionary relationships. Modern taxonomy distinguishes five kingdoms. The estimated five million species of the world are divided into these. [Source: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition 1996, 1992 by Houghton Mifflin Company.] Folk taxonomy generally refers to non-western taxonomic systems. See ethnobiology.

tay

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) man, people.

tay

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) hombre, pueblo.

tay caca yecu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) a man who walks to the enemy.

tay caca yecu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) hombre que camina para enfrentar al enemigo.

tayu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) throne, pair.

tayu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) trono, par.

telar de cintura

temazcal

ver sauna.

temescal

see sweatbath.

Tenochtitlan

(Nahuatl tetl, "stone," and nochtli, "fruit of the prickly pear cactus," and -tlan, "place of, at," thus "Place of the Stone and Prickly Pear Cactus"). Postclassic Mexica capital located on an island in the now-vanished Lake Texcoco.

tenuu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) eye.

tenuu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) ojo.

Teotihuacan

Classic-period site 30 km north of Mexico City.

teyusiya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite fingernail, literally "turquoise."

teyusiya

Tezcatlipoca

(Nahuatl tezcatl, "mirror," and pochtli, "smoke," thus "Smoking Mirror") Nahuatl name for a god associated with divination, iconographically distinguished by horizontal, black face paint stripes and a foot replaced by a smoking mirror.

Tezcatlipoca

the Conquest

The Crown

a metonym for the rulership of the Spanish monarchy.

ticoo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) tamale.

ticoo

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) tamal.

tienda

(Spanish) store.

tienda

N/A

Tikal

Classic Maya site located in northeast Guatemala; the site's inscriptional record spans A.D. 292 to A.D. 879.

Tikal

tirante de carga

(del algoquian tampan, "tirante de carga") tirante de carga que se utiliza en la frente para sopotar el peso de lo que se carga en la espalda.

tisii

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) vulture.

tisii

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) zopilote.

title

ownership of land. European law, beginning with the Spanish, recognized "aboriginal title," which indigenous people obtained by use and occupancy. Aboriginal title could only be extinguished by purchase, conquest, or abandonment and only the discovering sovereign (or its successor in interest) had the right to treat with a tribe for the purpose of extinguishing aboriginal title.

title

ownership of land. European law, beginning with the Spanish, recognized "aboriginal title," which indigenous people obtained by use and occupancy. Aboriginal title could only be extinguished by purchase, conquest, or abandonment and only the discovering sovereign (or its successor in interest) had the right to treat with a tribe for the purpose of extinguishing aboriginal title.

Tlaxcala

contemporary Mexican state located to the east of the Valley of Mexico and to the west of the state of Puebla; during the Postclassic, Tlaxcala is notable for remaining independent from the Mexica empire.

Tlaxcala

Tlazolteotl

(Nahuatl tlazoh, "precious," and teotl, "deity") Nahuatl name for a goddess associated with confession and spinning and weaving, iconographically distinguished by black face paint around the mouth and chin. Specific associations vary, although do not necessarily contradict each other. Jill Furst mentions that she is the "eater of filth." Barbara Tedlock suggests she is the goddess of midwives and recently pregnant and delivered women. See Mentors, Furst, "Natural History," Tedlock, "Female Shamans" and "Gender," photo captions.

Tlazolteotl

TLCAN

tnaa

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) motion.

tnaa

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) movimiento.

tnii

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) non-elite fingernail.

tnii

tnoo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) black.

tnoo

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) negro.

tobacco gourd

dried, hollowed gourd shell used for carrying powdered tobacco (Nicotiana sp.), often worn on the back with tassels in the Mixtec codices. A gold foil shell which once decorated such an object (the gourd had rotted away) was discovered by Alfonso Caso at Monte Alban's Tomb 7. Illustration: warty yellow tobacco gourds with red and yellow streamers are worn by Lord 10 Rain and Lord 10 Grass at the bottom center of plate 14 of the Codex Nuttall.

toho

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) noble.

toho

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) noble.

Toltec

sixteenth-century Nahuatl name for the indigenous inhabitants of what is now in the central and southeast part of the modern Mexican state of Oaxaca.

tolteca

tonalamatl

(Nahuatl tonalli, "day, sun, fate," and amatl, "book" or "paper") genre of Central Mexican book focused on the cycles and divinatory properties of days.

tonalamatl

(del griego topos, "lugar" y grafos "escribir") paisaje.

topography

(from Greek topos, "place," and graphein "to write") landscape.

(del griego topos, "lugar" y onymna, "nombre") nombre del lugar.

toponym

(from Greek topos, "place," and onymna, "name") place name.

tortilla

(from diminutive Spanish form of torta, "cake") a thin, round, non-sweet corn-cake, traditionally made of maize flour and baked on a round flat griddle (a comal). A staple food in Mesoamerican cuisine. Illustration: bowl of tortillas wrapped in the center with white paper is held by Lord 10 Grass in the upper right-hand corner of page 15 of the Codex Nuttall.

tortilla

transliteration

(from Latin trans, "across," and litera, "letter") the process of writing down a spoken language using the characters (e.g., the alphabet) of another language.

Tro-Cortesiano

Tro-Cortesianus

see Madrid Codex.

tumpline

(from Algonquian tampan, "carrying strap") carrying strap worn across the forehead to support a burden carried on the back.

tutu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) paper.

tutu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) papel.

tutu yondaayaa

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) singer, literally "he who holds the songbook."

tutu yondaayaa

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) cantante, literalmente "aquel que sostiene el libro de cantos."

typographical

(from Greek typos, "blow, figure, mark," and graphein, "to write") pertaining to printing or writing.

tz'i'

tz'i'

tziquin

tziquin

Tzotzil

Highland Guatemalan Maya language and its speakers. Zinacantan, the Maya community at the center of Evon Vogt's Harvard Chiapas Project, is a Tzotzil community in Chiapas, Mexico.

tzotzil

U

Uaxactun

Classic Maya site located in northeast Guatemala; the site's inscriptional record spans A.D. 328 to A.D. 889.

Uaxactun

una

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) eight.

una

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) ocho.

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. UNESCO's constitution was adopted by the London Conference in November 1945. UNESCO states that its main objective "is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations."

UNESCO

uni

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) three.

uni

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) tres.

usa

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) seven.

usa

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) siete.

usi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) ten.

usi

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) diez.

usiee

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) eleven.

usiee

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) once.

usiuni

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) thirteen.

usiuni

(siglo XVI, Mixteco de Teposcolula) trece.

usivvui

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) twelve.

usivvui

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) doce.

usos y costumbres

of indigenous people in Mexico are terms that refer to the foundations and legal customs of indigenous communities and are to be distinguished from federal and state legal systems. Usos y costumbres or customs and traditions set the standards that order life and relations in the indigenous world. Arrangements and procedures to protect and respect indigenous communities' customs and traditions--languages, cultures, practices, and specific patterns of social organization--(provided that they do not contravene the Mexican Constitution) are currently being drafted and signed into law. Under discussion are such concerns as: the compatibility between standards and traditions deriving from indigenous tradition and custom and the federal and local legal systems; the need to understand what is implied by: "respect for the autonomy of indigenous peoples, municipalities and regions"; and the call by indigenous groups for a new legal framework that answers the "legitimate" demands of the country's indigenous people. See San Andres Accords.

usos y costumbres

uto-azteca

grupo de lenguas que se hablan desde el norte de California hasta Costa Rica. Algunos de los grupos que hablan lenguas uto-aztecas son los hopi, los paiute, los shoshone, los cora, los huichol y los nahuas.

Uto-Aztecan

family of languages spoken from northern California to Costa Rica. Speakers of Uto-Aztecan languages include the Hopi, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Cora, the Huichol, and the Nahuas.

V

Valley of Mexico

mountain-ringed lowland basin (80 by 64 km/50 by 40 miles; elevation 2,286 m/7,500 ft) surrounding modern-day Mexico City.

vehe

(twentieth-century Mixtec; equivalent to sixteenth-century huahi) house, building, temple.

vehe

(mixteco del siglo XX; equivalente al huahui del siglo XVI) casa, edificio, templo.

Venus

planet whose 584-day cycle of appearance and disappearance (visible 263 days as the morning star, then invisible for fifty-five to sixty days in superior conjunction, then visible for 263 days as the evening star, and finally invisible for eight days in inferior conjunction) was observed by Mesoamericans and was significant in Mesoamerican religious practices.

Venus

vertical integration

agricultural strategy in which an individual or community has access to land/fields at a number of different elevations. This allows users to take advantage of the climatic and resource differences available in different ecological zones.

viejicito

(Spanish) "little old person."

viejicito

N/A

vigesimal

(from Latin vigesimus, "twentieth") a numeric system based on units of twenty; compare with the "decimal" system based on units of ten.

vigesimal

vino Catalan

(Spanish) "Catalan wine."

vino Catalan

N/A

voladores

(from Spanish volar, "to fly") performers in a Mesoamerican religious event, four individuals who climb to the top of a tall pole and then swing down on ropes. Although practiced throughout Mesoamerica at the time of the conquest, today the volador ritual is best known from Veracruz.

voladores

voluta atada

vvui

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) two.

vvui

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) dos.