W

War of Heaven

one of the earliest events in Mixtec codical history, a two-part battle in which gods and Mixtec ancestors fight and defeat, first, stone-striped Earth Men, and, second, red and white striped Cloud Men who descend from the sky (hence the name of the battle: The War of Heaven). Illustration: the War of Heaven is fought on pages 20 and 21 of the Codex Nuttall.

warband

in Mixtec iconography, a line of red, black, and white chevrons used in military contexts (to decorate "war paths," costume elements, etc).

Wehrmacht

"fighting forces," refers to the German Army, especially during the Third Reich.

Wehrmacht

Wehrmacht

"fighting forces," refers to the German Army, especially during the Third Reich.

Wehrmacht

welfare

the granting of money or goods by a government to people in need.

World Council of Indigenous Peoples

is an international organization that has established a formal relationship with the United Nations. The WCIP seeks to have beliefs and concepts of aboriginal rights accepted internationally as basic human, economic, and political rights of indigenous peoples.

X

xicolli

(Nahuatl) a type of Mesoamerican garment, roughly square in shape with arm and neck holes and a fringed hem. Among the Mixtecs, red xicollis (probably dyed with cochineal) were male elite garments, and black and white xicollis were priestly garments.

xicolli

Xochicalco

(Nahuatl xochitl, "flower," calli, "house" or calani, "plaster," and c(o), locative suffix, thus "Plaster Flower Place" or "Flower House Place") hilltop archaeological site in central Mexico, dating to the Late Classic-Early Postclassic. The site's architecture, including the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent, indicates Maya stylistic influences.

Xochicalco

Y

yaa

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) dry, hot, ash, song.

yaa

yaha

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) eagle, red, chile pepper.

yaha

yahui

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) maguey.

yahui

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) maguey.

yahui cuij

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec yahui, "maguey," and cuij, "large") large maguey.

yahui cuij

(siglo XVI, del Mixteco de Teposcolula yahui "maguey" y cuij "grande") maguey grande.

Yaqui

Yaqui

yata

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) coa, digging stick for planting.

yata

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) coa, palo utilizado para excavar hoyos antes de plantar.

yawi

Mixtec name for a supernatural animal known throughout Mesoamerica ("fire serpent" or xiuhcoatl in Nahuatl; xicani in Zapotec) with a turtle shell back, a flint tail, and a back-bending snouted face. Yawi had the ability to fly through the air, and were equated with sorcerers. They are still seen in the Mixteca today, appearing as flying, luminescent balls, like the light of a lantern.

yawi

yaya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite head, elite suffix.

yaya

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) cabeza de la elite, sufijo para elite.

yechi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) lizard.

yechi

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) lagartija.

yeque

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) bone, squash.

yeque

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) hueso, calabaza.

yeque ndi yaya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite breast, literally "gourd."

yeque ndi yaya

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) pecho de la elite, literalmente "calabaza."

yeso

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite genitalia, literally "fiery heart."

yo caha toho

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to speak elegantly.

yo caha toho

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) hablar elegantemente.

yo dza cuij

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to polish wood.

yo dza cuij

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) pulir madera.

yo-

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) a declarative affix for verbs.

yo-

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) afijo declarativo de los verbos.

yoco

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) wasp.

yoco

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) avispa.

yodzo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) feather, plain, valley, metate.

yodzo

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) pluma, planicie, valle, metate.

yonacahuindi tnuhu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to read or speak of lineage.

yonacahuindi tnuhu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) leer o escribir sobre el linaje.

yonacanindi tnuhu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to order and establish lineage.

yonacanindi tnuhu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) ordenar o establecer el linaje.

yonandasininondi yaa tnuhu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to recount the song of lineage.

yonandasininondi yaa tnuhu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) hacer un recuento de las canciones sobre el linaje.

yonatnayndi tnuhu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to arrange/address lineage.

yonatnayndi tnuhu

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) arreglar o atender el linaje.

yondaanuutnuhundi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) to write on [of] lineage.

yondaanuutnuhundi

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) escribir sobre el linaje.

yoo

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) moon, vessel.

yoo

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) luna, nave.

yuchi

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) flint, knife.

yuchi

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) pedernal, cuchillo.

yuchi ya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite teeth, literally "flints."

yuchi ya

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) dientes de la elite, literalmente "pedernal."

yucu

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) grass, hill, mountain.

yucu

yucuita

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec yucu, "hill, mountain," and ita, "flower) Hill of the Flower.

yucuita

yucuyoco

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec yucu, "hill, mountain," and yoco, "wasp") Hill of the Wasp.

yucuyoco

yuhuitayu

(Mixtec yuhui, "woven mat," and tayu, "throne" or "pair/couple") Postclassic and early colonial Mixtec political unit. Because the yuhuitayu ("the mat, the marriage pair") seems to have been ruled jointly by a male and female ruler, the term Mixtec "kingdoms" might be erroneous, and the terms "coupledom" or "king-queendom" may be a more accurate description of Mixtec political organization. Illustration: Lord 10 Eagle and Lady 9 Wind are seated on the thrones and mat of Jaltepec on the upper right corner of page 5 of the Codex Selden.

yuhuitayu

yusa

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) shield, brain.

yusa

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) escudo, cerebro.

yusa dzini

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) non-elite brains.

yusa dzini

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) cerebros de la no elite.

yusa yaya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite brains.

yusa yaya

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) cerebros de la elite.

yusaya

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) elite shoulder, literally "shield."

yusaya

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) hombro de la elite, literalmente "escudo."

yuta

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) river.

yuta

yutecoo

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec yuta, "river," and coo, "serpent") River of the Serpent.

yutecoo

yuu dza cuij

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) stone for polishing.

yuu dza cuij

(mixteco de Teposcolula del siglo XVI) piedra para pulir.

yuvui

(sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec) petate, a woven reed or palm fiber mat.

yuvui

yuvuitayu

(from sixteenth-century Teposcolula Mixtec yuvui, "petate," and tayu, "throne, [marriage] pair") polity, king-queendom.

yuvuitayu

Z

Zapatista

founders of the EZLN (Zapatista Army of National Liberation) in Chiapas, Mexico; another name for the EZLN. The EZLN or Zapatistas brought world attention to themselves when they seized five towns in Chiapas, Mexico, on New Year's Day in 1994. In the years since, there have been only a couple of weeks of actual warfare, although there have been massacres, rapes, imprisonments and individual murders. However the uneasy cease-fire has seen hundreds of land occupations and several national and international gatherings and, most importantly, the San Andres Accords.

Zapatista

Zapotec

(from Nahuatl tzapo-tl, "sapote plant," and -teca-tl, "resident of") sixteenth-century Nahuatl name for the indigenous inhabitants of what is now in the central and southeast part of the modern Mexican state of Oaxaca.

zapoteca

zocalo

(Spanish) town square.