1 Caso 1949.

2 See the key work of Mary Elizabeth Smith (1963, 1979, 1983a, 1983b, 1988, 1994); König 1979; Jansen 1992: 25-27; Bruce Byland and John Pohl (1995); Pohl and Byland (1990) and John Pohl (2004, 2009). A number of place names are included in archaeological studies by Spores (1972) and Plunkett (1983); see also Kowalewski et al. 2009. More recent work on place names includes Hermann Lejarazu 2003; Geurds 2007; Hamann 2008a, 2012.

3 The terms “substantive” and “qualitative” were introduced by Mary Elizabeth Smith (Smith 1983, 38).

4 The identification of Yute Coo is discussed in Byland and Pohl 1995, 104.

5 The Tilantongo place sign was first identified in 1949 by Alfonso Caso (177-79). It is also discussed in Smith 1973, 55-57.

6 Byland and Pohl 1995, xiii.

7 Acuña 1984, 234.

8 “The hill element is by far the most common. It can actually refer to a hill, but it often simply serves as the foundation on which identifying elements are put” (Boone 2000, 49).

9 Ciudad (Alvarado 1593, 63v) and pueblo (Alvarado 1593, 174v); see also Terraciano 2001, 105.

10 Smith 1994, 116-118.

11 Hamann (2008b) has argued that many of the chiyo in the screenfolds are meant to represent archaeological remains, that is, the foundations of ruined buildings.

12 Jaltepec—as “Belching Mountain”—was first discussed by Herbert Spinden (1933); the sign’s reading as Añute was proposed by Smith 1983a.

13 Smith 1983a.

14 Byland and Pohl 1995, 189.

15 See, for example, John Pohl’s work on “alliance corridors” (2003).

16 Maarten Jansen has argued that the site of Hill of the Wasp is actually part of Monte Albán in the Valley of Oaxaca. For an overview of debates over the location of this and other related sites, and a list of references, see Hamann 2008b, 123 and Hermann Lejarazu 2011.