Lienzo de Tlaxcala

Introduction

The original Lienzo de Tlaxcala was a painted cotton sheet approximately 2 meters wide and 5 meters long. It was probably created around 1552. A large scene at the top depicted the political structure of the Central Mexican kingdom of Tlaxcala. Below, a seven-by-thirteen grid of cells contained dozens of small scenes that showed how the Tlaxcalans and their Spanish allies defeated the Aztecs and took over their empire. In other words, the lower portion of the Lienzo told the story of the “Conquest of Mexico“€ from a Native American point of view. The small scenes which told this story read from left to right, top to bottom, one row at a time. The original Lienzo de Tlaxcala is lost. The version you see in Mesolore has been recreated using images from a lithograph facsimile printed in 1892. For more information, see the Introduction to the Lienzo de Tlaxcala Nahua tutorial.

1552

Tlaxcalan

200 cm x 500 cm

  • [0.1] Above everything is the Coat of Arms of the Emperor, Charles V. Here the text says PLUS VLTRA, “Further Beyond.”
  • [0.2] Directly below is the mountain of the kingdom of Tlaxcala, with a chapel to the Virgin of the Assumption, and
  • [0.3] the coat of arms of Tlaxcala, granted in 1535.
  • [0.4] To the left are four maize cobs, symbols of tribute (?);
  • [0.5] to the right is a woven palm box and a bag, symbols of tribute (?).
  • [0.6] Directly below is a cross, decorated with the symbols of the Passion of Christ. It is erected by both Tlaxcalans and Castilians:
  • [0.7] To the left, two Tlaxcalan nobles, wearing twisted headbands, loincloths, and long capes
  • [0.8] and a Castilian, wearing a yellow hat, red doublet, and blue hose;
  • [0.9] to the right, two bearded Castilians, one wearing red and one wearing blue;
  • [0.10] and two Tlaxclan nobles, wearing twisted headbands, loincloths, and long capes.
  • [0.11] Watching this scene, on the left, are a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.12] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.13] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.14] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.15] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.16] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.17] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.18] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.19] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.20] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.21] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.22] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.23] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and cape, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [0.24] Watching the scene, on the right, are a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a pointed black cap and embroidered robes, seated in a folding chair, with his miter in front of him: this is Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal, the bishop of Mexico City; and
  • [0.25] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, with a red cross on his chest, seated in a folding chair: this is Antonio de Mendoza, the first Viceroy of New Spain; and
  • [0.26] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, with a red cross on his chest, seated in a folding chair: this is Luís de Velasco, the second Viceroy of New Spain.
  • [0.27] Surrounding this central axis are the four main kingdoms within the kingdom of Tlaxcala. Here is Quiahuiztlan, represented by a Quetzal Feather battle standard.
  • [0.28] See seven principal nobles from Quiahuiztlan: all wear twisted headbands, multicolored loincloths, and richly woven capes, all hold bouquets of flowers in their hands;
  • [0.29] see the twenty-nine noble houses of Quiahuiztlan.
  • [0.30] Here is Ocotelolco represented by an Eagle battle standard.
  • [0.31] See seven principal nobles from Ocotelolco: all wear twisted headbands, multicolored loincloths, and richly woven capes, all hold bouquets of flowers in their hands;
  • [0.32] see the chapel of Ocotelolco, at Tree Place:
  • [0.33] a man approaches, wearing a cape and carrying a net bag at his side and a digging stick;
  • [0.34] see the forty-eight noble houses of Ocotelolco.
  • [0.35] Here is Tizatlan, represented by a Heron battle standard.
  • [0.36] See six principal nobles from Tizatlan: all wear twisted headbands, multicolored loincloths, and richly woven capes, all hold bouquets of flowers in their hands;
  • [0.37] see the chapel of Tizatlan, at Water Place:
  • [0.38] a man approaches, wearing a cape and carrying a net bag on a tumpline and a digging stick;
  • [0.39] see the fifty-two noble houses of Tizatlan.
  • [0.40] Here is Tepeticpac, represented by a Canid Deity battle standard.
  • [0.41] See four principal nobles from Tepeticpac: all wear twisted headbands, multicolored loincloths, and richly woven capes, all hold bouquets of flowers in their hands;
  • [0.42] see the fourteen noble houses of Tepeticpac.
  • [1.1] [The First Row] [August 1519] Tlaxcallá In the kingdom of Tlaxcala
  • [1.2] a foreign messenger arrives: his hair long and unbound, face and thigh tattooed, wearing a labret but no ear ornaments, naked but for a white and red loincloth and sandals, looking at the ground with almost-closed eyes. He holds up a letter on a thin reed. He presents this to
  • [1.3] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, and cape, sitting on a stool; and
  • [1.4] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, and cape, sitting on a stool; and
  • [1.5] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing earspools, labret, and cape, sitting on a stool; and
  • [1.6] another Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, and cape, sitting on a stool.
  • [2.1] [31 August 1519] Yliyocan In Iliyocan, on the borders of Tlaxcala,
  • [2.2] an Otomi noble, wearing a feathered headband and earspool; and
  • [2.3] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, white loincloth, and cape, bearing a bowl of ?; and
  • [2.4] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, and cape, bearing a roasted turkey on a spit; and
  • [2.5] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, white and red loincloth, and cape, bearing a live turkey all meet a group of strangers
  • [2.6] at "Place of Many Ash/Elder Trees."
  • [2.7] In front stands Malinche, translating, wearing a flower-patterned huipil, spiral-patterned skirt, and red Castilian shoes.
  • [2.8] Behind Malinche gestures Hernán Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and white hose, mounted on a white horse, looking at the ground with downcast eyes.
  • [2.9] Behind Malinche and Cortés are other warriors: a Castilian wearing a golden metal helmet, wielding a lobed Castilian shield, mounted on a black horse; and
  • [2.10] a bearded Castilian wearing a black hat and red doublet, wielding a lobed Castilian shield.
  • [3.1] Tecoaccinco
  • [3.2] In Tecoaccinco, "On the Little Stone Snake"
  • [3.3] before a painted palace,
  • [3.4] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband and cape; and
  • [3.5] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, red and white loincloth, and plaid cape, bearing a necklace; and
  • [3.6] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, flower-like jewels, white and red loincloth, and cape, bearing a bundle of cloth all wait to present their gifts to the strangers.
  • [3.7] In front is an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth, and orange cape. He ties a bracelet on the wrist of
  • [3.8] Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, sitting on a folding chair.
  • [3.9] Malinche translates, wearing a huipil.
  • [3.10] Behind both Malinche and Cortés, a soldier, wearing a beige hat and yellow doublet, holding a spear, talks to
  • [3.11] another soldier, wearing a white hat, red doublet, and white hose, holding a spear.
  • [4.1] Atlivetzyan In Atlihuetzyan,
  • [4.2] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, white and red loincloth, and plaid cape, holding a bouquet of flowers; and
  • [4.3] a Tlaxcalan noble, wearing a red headband, earspools, labret, red and white loincloth, and cape, holding a bouquet of flowers,
  • [4.4] both present a basket of eggs,
  • [4.5] a basket of eggs,
  • [4.6] and three turkeys
  • [4.7] to Malinche, translating, wearing a yellow huipil, white skirt, and red Castilian shoes.
  • [4.8] Behind her, Cortés listens, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, mounted on a white horse, looking at the ground with downcast eyes.
  • [4.9] Behind them both is a Castilian warrior, wearing a metal helmet, wielding a lobed Castilian shield, mounted on a white horse.
  • [4.10] There are many tall spears.
  • [4.11] All this happens at Place of Falling Water [Atlihuetzyan]
  • [5.1] Ycmouavatecque. tlaxcallá. Here the text says ycmouavatecque. tlaxcallá. "They have embraced in Tlaxcala"
  • [5.2] A cross rises up between
  • [5.3] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, white loincloth, and cape, holding a bouquet of flowers; and
  • [5.4] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, and cape, holding a bouquet of flowers; and
  • [5.5] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, white loincloth, and cape, holding a bouquet of flowers, whose wrist is grabbed by
  • [5.6] Cortés, head bared before the cross, wearing a black doublet, black hose, and a sword.
  • [5.7] Behind Cortés stands Malinche, behind a banner, and
  • [5.8] a Franciscan friar, wearing a beige hat and hooded robes.
  • [6.1] Here the text says quitlaqualmacaque: "They gave him food." [Le dieron comida]
  • [6.2] Within a palace,
  • [6.3] Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, seated on a folding chair, gestures to
  • [6.4] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, bracelets, and cape, seated on a folding chair; and
  • [6.5] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, bracelets, and cape, standing to the side; and
  • [6.6] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, bracelets, and cape, standing to the side.
  • [6.7] Offerings are presented: a tall basket of eggs,
  • [6.8] a caged bird,
  • [6.9] a caged bird,
  • [6.10] a pile of grain,
  • [6.11] three live turkeys,
  • [6.12] a low basket of eggs, and
  • [6.13] a pile of grain.
  • [6.14] Malinche, taller than anyone else, translates, wearing a plaid huipil, diamond-patterned skirt, and red Castilian shoes.
  • [6.15] To the side are a bearded Castilian, gesturing wearing a white hat, yellow doublet, and white hose; and
  • [6.16] a Castilian warrior, wearing a red doublet, mounted on a white horse; and
  • [6.17] another Castilian warrior, wearing a metal helmet, bearing a lobed Castilian shield, mounted on a white horse.
  • [6.18] There are many tall spears.
  • [7.1] Here the text says Quitlahtique: "They made him offerings."
  • [7.2] A Tlaxcalan noble, gesturing, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, red loincloth, and cape; and
  • [7.3] a Tlaxcalan noble, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, and cape; and
  • [7.4] a Tlaxcalan noble, gesturing, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, orange loincloth, and orange cape; and
  • [7.5] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, and plaid cape; and
  • [7.6] a Tlaxcalan noble, gesturing, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, white and red loincloth, and plaid cape all present a number of offerings.
  • [7.7] Here are the offerings: a group of young women, wearing richly-woven huipils and skirts,
  • [7.8] a pair of banded gold bracelets,
  • [7.9] a pair of gold earspools,
  • [7.10] a pair of red-trimmed gold bracelets,
  • [7.11] a pair of banded gold bracelets,
  • [7.12] a Twisted Gourd-patterned cloth,
  • [7.13] a pair of mirrors,
  • [7.14] a necklace of greenstone beads,
  • [7.15] a greenstone labret,
  • [7.16] an eagle-headed labret,
  • [7.17] a diamond-patterned cloth, and
  • [7.18] a pair of red-trimmed gold bracelets.
  • [7.19] These gifts are received by Malinche, translating, wearing a plaid huipil, Twisted Gourd-patterned skirt, and red Castilian shoes; and
  • [7.20] Cortés, diminutive, gesturing, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, seated on a folding chair.
  • [7.21] Behind Malinche and Cortés stand a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a white hat and yellow doublet, holding a spear; and
  • [7.22] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, white doublet, and black hose, holding a red banner an lobed Castilian shield; and
  • [7.23] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a red hat and doublet.
  • [7.24] There are many tall spears.
  • [8.1] [The Second Row] Here the text says "ycmoquayateq[ue] que tlatoque" "The lords have been baptized."
  • [8.2] Within a building,
  • [8.3] before an image of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus
  • [8.4] a priest, wearing a long white robe, with red sashes hanging from his neck and forearm, raises a round communion wafer: the Tlaxcalan nobles are converting to Christianity.
  • [8.5] Before the priest kneel a Tlaxcalan noble, hands joined in prayer, long hair bound in cloth, wearing earspools, a red and white loincloth, and red-tassled cape; and
  • [8.6] a Tlaxcalan noble, hands joined in prayer, hair cut short in a Castilian style, wearing earspools and a plaid cape; and
  • [8.7] a Tlaxcalan noble, hands joined in prayer, hair cut short in a Castilian style, wearing earspools and a flowered and tassled cape; and
  • [8.8] a Tlaxcalan noble, hands joined in prayer, long hair bound in cloth, wearing earspools, an orange loincloth, and striped cape.
  • [8.9] Behind these nobles are three witnesses: Cortés, head bared before the cross, wearing a black doublet and black hose, seated in a folding chair, holding a crucifix before him; and
  • [8.10] Malinche, translating, wearing a plaid blouse; and
  • [8.11] a bearded Castilian, head bared before the cross, wearing a beige doublet.
  • [8.12] There are many tall spears.
  • [8.13] Behind the priest stand a Tlaxcalan noble, hair cut short in a Castilian style, wearing a cape; and
  • [8.14] a Tlaxcalan noble, hair cut short in a Castilian style, wearing a plaid cape; and
  • [8.15] an Otomi noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband and disk-decorated cape.
  • [8.16] Behind them are three witnesses: a beared Castilian, head bared before the cross, wearing a white doublet and white hose; and
  • [8.17] a beared Castilian, head bared before the cross, wearing a red doublet; and
  • [8.18] a beared Castilian, head bared before the cross, wearing a white doublet, holding a candle like a spear.
  • [9.1] [late October 1519] Cholollá
  • [9.2] In Cholula, a sacred city, there are many priests. Here are three inside a building, their bodies painted black.
  • [9.3] A fourth priest, also painted black, reveals a plan to massacre the Tlaxcalans and Castilians to two Tlaxcalan nobles, wearing twisted headbands, white loincloths, and red capes.
  • [9.4] One noble gestures to the priest, hearing his warning;
  • [9.5] the other noble tells the news to Malinche.
  • [9.6] Malinche, wearing a plaid huipil, Twisted Gourd-patterned skirt, and red Castilian shoes, then commands an attack against the people of Cholula.
  • [9.7] Before her a Castilian attacks, wearing a white hat, red doublet, and white hose, wielding a spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [9.8] The horse's hooves crush dismembered bodies scattered on the ground.
  • [9.9] A Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and spear; and
  • [9.10] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and cotton armor, wielding a circular Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword
  • [9.11] both attack the holy temple of Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent.
  • [9.12] A black-painted priest fights the invaders, wearing a red headband and white loincloth, wielding a circular mountain shield and an obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [9.13] A naked long-haired man falls dead.
  • [10.1] Chalco The conquering army leaves Cholula and marches towards the Valley of Mexico, towards Chalco,
  • [10.2] first passing through Little Gourd Place [Ayotzinco] and In the Flat Place [Tlamanalco],
  • [10.3] where there are many granaries filled with maize.
  • [10.4] Many travel on the road to Chalco: a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, labret, white and red loincloth, and red cape, holding a staff; and
  • [10.5] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, labret, white loincloth, and flower-patterned cape, holding a staff; and
  • [10.6] a Tlaxcalan noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, labret, white loincloth, and plaid cape, holding a staff; and
  • [10.7] a male Castilian dog, wearing a nail-spiked collar; and
  • [10.8] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, white doublet and red hose, wielding a spear and mounted on a white horse; and
  • [10.9] (here enemies have laid a trap in the road: a pit lined with sharp spikes
  • [10.10] before the Smoking Mountain of Popocatepetl)
  • [10.11] a commoner man, wearing only a white loincloth, bearing a load of maize on his back and holding a staff.
  • [10.12] All of these beings travel on the path leading to Chalco, at the southern end of the Valley of Mexico.
  • [11.1] [early November 1519] Tenochtitlan In Tenochtitlan,
  • [11.2] at the palace of the old Moctezuma (Wewe Motekotzoma; Moctezuma I;
  • [11.3] here his name is written: we te-ko-tzo-ma),
  • [11.4] a meeting takes place between Malinche, translating, wearing a red blouse and plaid skirt; and
  • [11.5] Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, seated in a folding chair; and
  • [11.6] the Mexica ruler Moctezuma II, wearing the Tlaxcalan twisted headband, seated in a folding chair
  • [11.7] (his name glyph is usually drawn as a turquoise crown; but here it is drawn as a Tlaxcalan headband).
  • [11.8] Behind Moctezuma II stand other men: a Mexica noble, wearing a twisted headband, white and red loincloth, and white cape, standing elegantly; and
  • [11.9] a Mexica noble, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and white cape; and
  • [11.10] a Mexica noble, wearing a twisted headband and white cape.
  • [11.11] Gifts are presented to Cortés and Malinche: a deer,
  • [11.12] a caged live bird,
  • [11.13] a caged live bird,
  • [11.14] live quail, and
  • [11.15] a great deal of maize.
  • [12.1] Here the text says ycayaqmatépan. qlpito albaez "They have gone to the coast, they have gone to capture Narvaéz" [Ya fueron a la costa, fueron á prender á Narvaez] Diego Velázquez, governor of Cuba and enemy of Cortés, has sent troops against Cortés, led by Pánfilo de Narvaez.
  • [12.2] Cortés, wearing a white hat, black doublet, and grey hose, mounted on a branded white horse, rides to the coast to fight his enemies.
  • [12.3] He is accompanied by a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat and red doublet, wielding a spear and mounted on a white horse; and
  • [12.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat and white doublet, wielding a spear.
  • [12.5] The Castilians are led by a Tlaxcalan noble, wearing a twisted headband, white and red loincloth, and white cape, carrying a curved staff and giving advice to Cortés; and
  • [12.6] a Tlaxcalan noble, wearing a twisted headband, white and red loincloth, and red cape, carrying a curved staff and receiving advice from
  • [12.7] a Tlaxcalan noble, wearing a twisted headband , white and red loincloth, and white cape, giving advice.
  • [12.8] These travelers are joined by more troops, allies. Some allies are armed with spears: a warrior wearing a white Coyote costume, wielding a round alternating stripes shield; and
  • [12.9] a warrior wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [12.10] a warrior wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [12.11] a warrior wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [12.12] a warrior wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [12.13] Some allies are armed with swords: a warrior wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [12.14] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [12.15] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [12.16] a warrior, wearing a white Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec spiral shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [13.1] [29 May 1520] uitzilapan In coastal Huitzilapan,
  • [13.2] "On the Water of the Hummingbird,"
  • [13.3] a messenger has arrived , wearing quilted armor and bearing a letter on a slim reed (which contains news of a massacre in Mexico-Tenochtitlan the week before, on 20 May 1520). The messenger arrives in time to witness a battle between two factions of Castilians.
  • [13.4] A bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, red doublet, and grey hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a brown red horse, attacks the warriors of Pánfilo de Narvaéz.
  • [13.5] A clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a grey doublet, is killed by a spear; fighting behind him are
  • [13.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and white doublet, holding a metal spear; and
  • [13.7] a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat and white doublet, holding a metal spear; and
  • [13.8] a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat and white doublet, holding a metal spear; and
  • [13.9] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and white doublet.
  • [13.10] These rebels have taken refuge in the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent.
  • [13.11] Below, Narváez, bearded, wearing a white doublet and beige hose, his beige hat fallen to the ground, is taken captive.
  • [13.12] His hands are bound by one of the bearded warriors of Cortés, wearing a beige hat, red doublet, and beige hose.
  • [13.13] The imprisonment of Narváez is watched by a Tlaxcalan noble, hair cut short in a Castilian style, wearing a cape and white loincloth and holding a bouquet of flowers; and
  • [13.14] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a white loincloth and quilted armor, holding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [13.15] a commoner, wearing a beige and white loincloth, carrying a pack of supplies on his back with at tumpline; and
  • [13.16] a commoner, wearing a red and white loincloth, carrying a pack of supplies on his back with at tumpline; and
  • [13.17] a warrior, wearing a grey headdress and quilted armor, carrying a round Curved Labret shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [14.1] [20 May 1520] Here the text says ycqnyaocaltzacca "They have been driven by warfare back to their house." [Ya los habían encerrado en la casa con guerra]
  • [14.2] In the month of Toxcatl, sacred to the god Tezcatlipoca, a massacre is carried out by Pedro de Alvarado and his soldiers in the city of Tenochtitlan. They slaughter the people gathered to worship Tezcatlipoca, and are then attacked in turn. The Castilians and their allies are driven back to the patio of the palace in which they are garrisoned.
  • [14.3] A cannon shoots flames to guard the entrance; behind, ready for battle, are
  • [14.4] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and labret, wielding a round shield; and
  • [14.5] a Tlaxcalan warrior, hair cut short in Castilian style and tied in a topknot, wearing quilted armor and a labret, bearing a Quetzal Feather battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [14.6] a Castilian warrior, wearing a metal helmet and armor and red hose, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [14.7] a Castilian warrior, wearing an orange metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear and mounted on a white horse; and
  • [14.8] a Castilian warrior, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear and mounted on a white horse.
  • [14.9] Malinche, taller than anyone else, wearing a yellow huipil, directs the attack.
  • [14.10] Rocks shower into the patio; barbed arrows shower into the patio; dismembered bodies fill the patio.
  • [14.11] Outside, the Mexica warriors attack: a warrior, wearing a white loincloth and blue bodysuit, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [14.12] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth and blue bodysuit; and wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword,
  • [14.13] a warrior, wearing a white loincloth and yellow Huaxtec costume, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [14.14] a warrior, wearing a white loincloth and yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [14.15] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [14.16] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth and yellow Huaxtec costume, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [14.17] a warrior, wearing a white loincloth and blue Coyote costume, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and a stone-filled sling.
  • [15.1] [The Third Row] Here the text says yepeuq[ue] yaoyotl ycha motecuicomá "They have begun fighting in the house where Moteczuma is" [Ya empezaron la guerra en la casa en que está Moteczuma]
  • [15.2] In the month of Etzacualiztli (here are the glyphs for this month, a bundle of maize and a bowl for beans), Cortés has returned victorious from the coast, and the Mexica warriors again attack the palace-garrison of the invaders.
  • [15.3] Warriors stand on the rooftop of the palace, one wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; they guard Moteczuma, who has been imprisoned inside.
  • [15.4] Moteczuma looks down from the walls of the palace and
  • [15.5] a stone flies through the air: it will kill the Mexica ruler.
  • [15.6] The walls of the palace burn,
  • [15.7] an image of Mary and Jesus burns,
  • [15.8] an image of the crucifixion burns, and
  • [15.9] flames shoot forth from the mouth of a cannon.
  • [15.10] Inside the burning walls, Cortés and his allies fight their attackers: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [15.11] a Tlaxcalan, hair cut short in Castilian style, wielding a round shield; and
  • [15.12] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, mounted on a white horse; and
  • [15.13] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear, charging on a white horse; and
  • [15.14] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [15.15] a warrior, wearing a yellow bodysuit; and
  • [15.16] Malinche, taller than anyone else, wielding a metal sword (?).
  • [15.17] Outside the burning walls, the Mexica attack: a warrior, wearing a yellow loincloth and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [15.18] a warrior, wearing a Coyote headdress and yellow tunic, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [15.19] a warrior, hair tied up in a topknot with a feathered ornament, wearing a red and white loincloth and white bodysuit, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [15.20] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, labret, white loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [15.21] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, labret, and red bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [15.22] a warrior, wearing a red and white loincloth and yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [16.1] [28 June 1520] Here the text says yequ[ue]tla ti tezavitl yn malques "The Marques has burned the temple of the idol." The Castilians and their allies leave their palace garrison and fight in the streets of Tenochtitlan.
  • [16.2] A clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a beige horse, spears an enemy warrior.
  • [16.3] A warrior, hair decorated with downy feathers, falls backward, speared, gushing blood, still clutching his round shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [16.4] A host of invaders attacks the main temple of Tenochtitlan: a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [16.5] a warrior, wearing a yellow-feathered white headband and white bodysuit, wielding an obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [16.6] a warrior, wearing a white headband, labret, and white bodysuit, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [16.7] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, labret, and white body suit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round sunbeam shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [16.8] a bearded Castilian, wearing a shining metal helmet, wielding a lobed Castilian shield; and
  • [16.9] a warrior, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a white headband, labret, and white bodysuit; wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [16.10] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing an Umbilical Cord battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield.
  • [16.11] In front of this host, two men attack the main temple of Tenochtitlan: a warrior, wearing a white headband and red bodysuit, bearing a Quetzal Feather battle standard on his back wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [16.12] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword.
  • [16.13] Wooden beams (?) are hurled down on the attackers.
  • [16.14] Above the attackers the temple burns; inside fight
  • [16.15] a warrior, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a white loincloth and red bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [16.16] a warrior, wearing a red loincloth and yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [16.17] A warrior falls down the steeps of the temple, gushing blood, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing only a loincloth, still clutching his obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [16.18] A dead warrior, wearing a yellow bodysuit, lies at the foot of the steps;
  • [16.19] a dead warrior, wearing a red bodysuit, lies at the foot of the steps.
  • [17.1] [29 June 1520] Here the text says ye q[ui]zquequhxacall. "They have taken out the houses of wood." [Ya sacaron las casas de madera] The battle rages on; the warriors of Tenochtitlan continue to fight the invaders, standing on city walls:
  • [17.2] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, long labret, and white bodysuit, bearing an orange Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and barbed arrow; and
  • [17.3] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, labret, yellow loincloth, and orange bodysuit, bearing an orange Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch-Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [17.4] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, long labret, white loincloth, and white Huaxtec costume, bearing a white Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and barbed arrow; and
  • [17.5] a warrior, wearing a yellow loincloth and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and spear; and
  • [17.6] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, long labret, and white feathered bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and barbed arrow; and
  • [17.7] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and orange Huaxtec costume, bearing a white Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [17.8] The invaders have built moveable fortresses of wood; they use these to move through the city. Beneath one wooden house fight
  • [17.9] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [17.10] a warrior, wearing a white headband and tunic, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [17.11] a cannon, shooting flames.
  • [17.12] They have arrived at the edge of a canal; a ladder spans its two sides.
  • [17.13] A white horse is pulled from the waters by
  • [17.14] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor and sword.
  • [17.15] Beneath another wooden house fight
  • [17.16] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor and sword, firing a gun; and
  • [17.17] a warrior, wearing a white headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [17.18] a warrior, wearing a white headband and orange feathered bodysuit, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [17.19] Stones rain down on them; barbed arrows rain down on them.
  • [18.1] [30 June 1520: The Noche Triste] The wooden houses have been brought to the edge of the island-city; here a causeway crosses the lake, connecting with the mainland.
  • [18.2] Here flees Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet and black hose, wielding a Castilian shield and metal spear and riding a branded beige horse. Before him flee other invaders:
  • [18.3] two Tlaxcalans, wearing twisted headbands and quilted armor, wielding round shields and obsidian-bladed swords; and
  • [18.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword, standing elegantly; and
  • [18.5] two Tlaxcalans, wearing twisted headbands and quilted armor, wielding round Silver Stones shields and obsidian-bladed swords.
  • [18.6] All flee under the cover of darkness, but a bridge collapses: Castilians and Tlaxcalans thrash in the turquoise waters, drowning.
  • [18.7] Here the text says Tolteca acalotlí ypan õcãmícovac “In the canal called Toltecaacaloti, there are the dead.”
  • [18.8] One bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, tries to climb out of the mire.
  • [18.9] Here flee other Tlaxcalans who crossed the bridge in time: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and quilted armor, holding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.10] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband; and
  • [18.11] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and red tunic; and
  • [18.12] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband; and
  • [18.13] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and yellow bodysuit.
  • [18.14] Cortés and his allies are attacked on all sides by warriors in canoes: a warrior, wearing a red loincloth and yellow bodysuit, bearing a yellow Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.15] a dead warrior, eyes closed, still holding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield, dragged from his canoe into the water, hand clutching the leg of a thrashing bearded Castilian; and
  • [18.16] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth, and white Coyote (?) costume, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.17] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth, and white bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and arrow; and
  • [18.18] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red loincloth, and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.19] a warrior, wearing a white headband, orange loincloth, and a white Star Demon (?) costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and spear.
  • [18.20] Many have died in the canal, but others continue to flee on the causeway:
  • [18.21] Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, riding a beige horse; and
  • [18.22] Malinche? (or María Estrada?), wearing a petaled headdress, wielding a shield and metal spear, riding a beige horse; and
  • [18.23] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, red doublet, and red hose, wielding a metal spear, riding a white horse; and
  • [18.24] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.25] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and white loincloth, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.26] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [18.27] Before them all are Pedro de Alvarado, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, riding a beige horse;
  • [18.28] (here his name is written: TONATIUH; which is what the Nahuas call the blond Alvarado, after the sun god); and
  • [18.29] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband and red quilted armor, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield
  • [18.30] (here his name is written?: two trees and the haunch of a deer).
  • [18.31] Cortés and his allies are attacked on all sides by warriors in canoes: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.32] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white and red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [18.33] a warrior, wearing a red Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and spear; and
  • [18.34] a warrior, wearing a red headdress, white loincloth, and red bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [18.35] a warrior, wearing a red loincloth and red bodysuit, bearing a red Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec spiral shield and spear; and
  • [18.36] a warrior, wearing a yellow loincloth and yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and mace.
  • [19.1] tlacopá At Tlacopan,
  • [19.2] which means “On the Tlacoxochitl Plant” the survivors from Tenochtitlan reach the mainland.
  • [19.3] Even here there is fighting; a man lies dead, his hair long and unbound, wearing only an orange loincloth.
  • [19.4] Pedro de Alvarado rides in front, his blond hair cut short in a Castilian style, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, riding a beige horse.
  • [19.5] Following Alvarado are a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.6] Malinche, wearing an orange huipil, diamond-patterned skirt, and red Castilian shoes; and
  • [19.7] Doña Luisa?, the daughter of Tlaxcalan ruler Xicontecatl, wearing a white huipil and diiamond-patterned skirt with a cross-hatched overlap; and
  • [19.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red loincloth, and quilted cotton armor, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield.
  • [19.9] They are surrounded by their allies. Protecting them from above are a warrior, wielding a round three disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.10] a warrior, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.11] a warrior, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.12] a warrior, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.13] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round three disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.14] a warrior, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.15] a warrior, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.16] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [19.17] Protecting them from below are: a warrior, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.18] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round three disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.19] a warrior, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.20] a warrior, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.21] a warrior, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.22] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot with a Quetzal Feather Horns ornament, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [19.23] a warrior, wearing a yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [20.1] [The Fourth Row] [1 July 1520] Quauhximalpan From Tlacopan, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians march west to Quauhximalpan
  • [20.2] (which means “On the Wood Chips,” marked by a long-handled axe chopping a tree).
  • [20.3] Cortés gestures, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, sitting on a folding chair in a palm-thatched building.
  • [20.4] Malinche translates, wearing an orange huipil.
  • [20.5] A Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, labret, orange and white loincloth, and cape, discusses strategy with Malinche and Cortés.
  • [20.6] Watching this discussion are a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and cloth armor, holding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [20.7] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and cloth armor, holding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [20.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red loincloth, and yellow feathered bodysuit, holding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [20.9] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, holding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, mounted on a grey horse; and
  • [20.10] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, holding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear; and
  • [20.11] a bearded Castilian, wearing a beige hat, beige doublet, and yellow hose, holding a round Castilian shield and metal sword.
  • [20.12] Here a warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, his hair long and unbound, his round shield and mace lie beside him.
  • [20.13] Here a warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, his hair long and unbound, his round shield and obsidian-bladed sword lie beside him.
  • [20.14] Stones are scattered on the ground; arrows are scattered on the ground: there was fighting when Cortés and his allies fled here.
  • [21.1] [2 July 1520] Teocalhueyacan From Quauhximalpan, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians march north to Teocalhueyacan.
  • [21.2] There is a temple there.
  • [21.3] From within a thatch-roofed building fight
  • [21.4] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and long labret, wielding a round skull? shield; and
  • [21.5] a warrior, wearing a yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round shield and spear.
  • [21.6] The Tlaxcalans and Castilians fight in the main plaza of Teocalhueyacan: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow feathered tunic, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [21.7] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and white feathered tunic, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [21.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding metal spears; and
  • [21.9] a bearded Castilian, wearing a beige hat and white doublet, wielding a metal spear; and
  • [21.10] Cortés, wearing a black hat and grey doublet and grey hose, wielding a metal spear and mounted on a brown horse; and
  • [21.11] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband; and
  • [21.12] a warrior; and
  • [21.13] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round two disk shield; and
  • [21.14] a warrior in quilted armor, wielding a round shield.
  • [21.15] Malinche, taller than anyone else, raises her hand as she gives a command.
  • [21.16] The Tlaxcalans and Castilians are attacked on all sides by a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red and white loincloth, and orange bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and spear; and
  • [21.17] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red and orange loincloth, and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch –Nose Ornament shield and spear; and
  • [21.18] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red and white loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [21.19] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red and white loincloth, and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and arrow; and
  • [21.20] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, phallic white loincloth, and orange bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec spiral shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [21.21] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a loincloth.
  • [21.22] A warrior bearing a Butterfly battle standard on his back falls dead on his obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [22.1] [3 July 1520] tepotzotlan From Teocalhueyacan, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians march east to Tepotzotlan.
  • [22.2] On the left the Tlaxcalans and Castilians attack: a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing an orange hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a branded grey horse; and
  • [22.3] a beared Castilian, wearing an orange hat, wielding a metal spear; and
  • [22.4] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing an orange hat and orange doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [22.5] Malinche, wearing a jagged-patterned huipil, diamond-patterned skirt, and Castilian shoes, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [22.6] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [22.7] a Tlaxcalan warrior, wearing a white and red loincloth and white tunic, bearing the Tlaxcalan Heron battle standard of Tizatlan on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [22.8] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [22.9] A warrior lies dead on the ground.
  • [22.10] On the right, the people of Tepotzotlan defend their town: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white and red loincloth, and orange bodysuit, wielding a round three disk shield and mace; and
  • [22.11] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [22.12] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [22.13] A warrior, wearing a feathered headband and white bodysuit falls backward, his chest pierced by a spear, gushing blood.
  • [22.14] From within a thatch-roofed building, a hunchbacked man looks on, wearing only a red loincloth.
  • [22.15] A double-barbed arrow flies in the hunchback’s direction.
  • [23.1] [4 July 1520] Aychqualco From Tepotzotlan, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians march east to Aychqualco
  • [23.2] (which means “On the Cotton Water”)(?).
  • [23.3] Here there is no fighting; the warriors rest. Some stay awake, standing guard: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow quilted armor, bearing a ceramic jug on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [23.4] Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, holding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, mounted on a branded grey horse; and
  • [23.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [23.6] A round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and net bundle are placed on the ground. Many of the warriors are sleeping:
  • [23.7] Malinche, wearing a striped huipil, striped skirt, and red Castilian shoes; and
  • [23.8] a bearded Castilian, head bared, wearing an orange doublet and white hose, resting on his oval shield, his sword at his side; and
  • [23.9] a bearded Castilian, head bared, wearing a white doublet and yellow hose; and
  • [23.10] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, red doublet, and white hose; and
  • [23.11] a bearded Castilian, wearing a yellow hat and white doublet.
  • [23.12] Three Tlaxcalans hover between sleeping and waking: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [23.13] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [23.14] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword, drooping his head in exhaustion.
  • [24.1] [6 July 1520] Aztaquemecá From Aychqualco, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians march east to Aztaquemacea
  • [24.2] (which means “Place of the White Heron Feather Capes”):
  • [24.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [24.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and white loincloth, and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield, who listens to
  • [24.5] Cortés, wearing a feathered hat, grey doublet, and grey hose, wielding a metal spear, riding a brown horse; and
  • [24.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat, yellow doublet, and red hose, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear; and
  • [24.7] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a spear.
  • [24.8] The people of Aztaquemacea defend their town: a warrior, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [24.9] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a red loincloth and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield; and
  • [24.10] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round striped shield; and
  • [24.11] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and red bodysuit, wielding a round Hawk Scratch shield.
  • [24.12] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [24.13] A horse is killed;
  • [24.14] a bearded Castilian wearinga a red hat, red doublet, and white hose butchers the body. This will be the first meat the army has eaten since it fled from Tenochtitlan a week ago.
  • [25.1] tonáyxpá From Aztaquemacea, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians march east to Tonanixpan
  • [25.2] (which means “On the Face of Our Mother, goddess Tonantzin”).
  • [25.3] They have left the Valley of Mexico, but the fighting continues. On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and white loincloth, and yellow quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [25.4] Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and white hose, bearing a Claw battle standard on his back (which he has captured from his enemies), wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and metal spear, charging on a beige horse; and
  • [25.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield; and
  • [25.6] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and white loincloth, and yellow quilted armor, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [25.7] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [25.8] A warrior lies dead on the ground, wearing a feathered headband, red and white loincloth, and blue Huaxtec costume, still clutching his round shield;
  • [25.9] a warrior lies dead on the ground, wearing a feathered headband, red and white loincloth, and blue Huaxtec costume.
  • [25.10] To the right, the inhabitants of Tonanixpan defend their city: a warrior, wearing a yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and mace, fleeing the battlefield; and
  • [25.11] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and red bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield; and
  • [25.12] a warrior, wearing a twisted headband and blue bodysuit, fending off a spear with his round alternating stripes shield.
  • [26.1] [7 July 1520] petzicatla Temalacatitlá From Tonanixpan, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians march east to Petzicatla and Temalacatitlan
  • [26.2] (which mean “Place of the Petzicatl Flower” and “Among the Stone Spindle Whorls”)(?).
  • [26.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and white loincloth, and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [26.4] a warrior, wearing a headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [26.5] a warrior, wearing a headband, red loincloth, and quilted armor, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [26.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a white horse; and
  • [26.7] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and white doublet, wielding an oval Castilian shield; and
  • [26.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round shield; and
  • [26.9] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [26.10] Malinche, wearing an orange huipil, wielding a shield; and
  • [26.11] a Tlaxcalan warrior, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a shield; and
  • [26.12] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet, red doublet, and white hose, wielding a round Castlian shield and metal sword; and
  • [26.13] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield; and
  • [26.14] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and red bodysuit; wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [26.15] Shields and weapons are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [26.16] From behind a wall of shields, the people of Temalacatitlan(?) defend their town.
  • [26.17] A warrior lies dead on the ground, speared, gushing blood.
  • [26.18] From behind a wall of shields, the people of Petzicatla defend their town.
  • [27.1] [The Fifth Row] [8 July 1520] Xaltelolco One week after the disastrous Noche Triste, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians reach Xaltelolco in the kingdom of Tlaxcala.
  • [27.2] (Xaltelolco means “On the Mound of Sand”).
  • [27.3] On the left is the returning army: Malinche, taller than anyone else, translates, wearing a plaid huipil, white skirt with checkered border, and red Castilian shoes.
  • [27.4] Cortés speaks, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, seated on a folding chair.
  • [27.5] Many warriors listen to their tale: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round Silver Stones shield; and
  • [27.6] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and spear; and
  • [27.7] a warrior, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [27.8] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [27.9] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and yellow doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield; and
  • [27.10] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear; and
  • [27.11] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [27.12] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, wielding a round man-faced Castilian shield and metal spear (the paraphernalia of Mars, god of war); and
  • [27.13] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and yellow doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear.
  • [27.14] A brown horse eats grass;
  • [27.15] a grey horse eats grain.
  • [27.16] Food has been provided for the humans as well: a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [27.17] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [27.18] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [27.19] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [27.20] four live turkeys, and
  • [27.21] a tall basket of maize kernels (?).
  • [27.22] On the right, nobles from Tlaxcala listen and ask questions about the tales of war: a noble wearing earspools, white and red loincloth, and plaid cape, bearing a low woven basket of eggs; and
  • [27.23] a noble, wearing a long curved labret, earspools, white and red loincloth, and white cape, holding a flayed-face standard in one hand; and
  • [27.24] Citlalpopoca, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, labret, orange and white loincloth, and orange cape
  • [27.25] (here his name is written: *SITLAL-po-*; which means “Little Smoking Star”).
  • [28.1] veyotlipan From Xaltelolco, the Tlaxcalans and Castilians travel deeper into Tlaxcalan territory, to Hueyotlipan.
  • [28.2] There, within a thatch-roofed building,
  • [28.3] Malinche translates, wearing a plaid huipil, white skirt with checkered border, and red Castilian shoes; and
  • [28.4] Cortés speaks, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, seated on a folding chair.
  • [28.5] Many warriors listen to their tale: a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round shield and metal spear; and
  • [28.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, wielding a metal sword; and
  • [28.7] a bearded Castilian; and
  • [28.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and earspools, wielding a round Gold Disk shield; and
  • [28.9] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, and bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [28.10] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, and bodysuit, wielding a round Silver Stones shield; and
  • [28.11] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and yellow doublet, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and spear; and
  • [28.12] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and yellow doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield.
  • [28.13] A brown horse eats grass;
  • [28.14] a white horse eats grass.
  • [28.15] A bearded Castilian wearing a red hat, yellow doublet, and red hose provides the horses with grain.
  • [28.16] Food has been provided for the humans as well: a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.17] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.18] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.19] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.20] a spit-roasted turkey,
  • [28.21] a spit-roasted turkey,
  • [28.22] a spit-roasted turkey,
  • [28.23] a spit-roasted turkey,
  • [28.24] a spit-roasted turkey, and
  • [28.25] a spit-roasted turkey. A nobleman, wearing a white loincloth and plaid cape, oversees yet more food:
  • [28.26] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.27] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.28] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.29] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.30] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.31] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.32] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [28.33] eleven live turkeys
  • [28.34] a barrel of maize cobs, and
  • [28.35] a barrel of maize cobs,
  • [28.36] up to which a clean-shaven Castilian wearing a white hat, red doublet and gold hose climbs with a ladder.
  • [28.37] The Castilian points to this inscription: oncá q[ue]namicq[ue] intlatoque q[ue]maca q[ue] yxq[ue]ch qualoni “Here they went out to meet the Lords, and they gave them all kinds of food.”
  • [28.38] Here you see those nobles, listening to tales of war: a noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, white loincloth, and plaid cape; and
  • [28.39] a noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, and red cape; and
  • [28.40] a noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, labret, white loincloth, and striped cape; and
  • [28.41] a noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a grey headband and white cape; and
  • [28.42] a noble, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a grey headband, white loincloth, and white cape; and
  • [28.43] the Lord Maxicatzin, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth, and flowered cape, holding a boquet of flowers in one hand and the Claw battle standard in the other: this is the standard Cortés captured in Tonanixpan on July 6.
  • [28.44] (Here Maxicatzin’s name is written: ma-ka-).
  • [29.1] Tlaxcallan In Tlaxcala,
  • [29.2] a New Sun rises into the sky: a shining battle standard of quetzal plumes and gold.
  • [29.3] To the left, Cortés speaks, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose.
  • [29.4] Below him, Malinche translates, wearing a plaid huipil, blue and white skirt, and red Castilian shoes.
  • [29.5] Behind them both are several witnesses: a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat,
  • [29.6] a brown horse,
  • [29.7] a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat and red doublet, and
  • [29.8] a grey horse.
  • [29.9] To the right, a Tlaxcalan noble speaks, long hair bound in cloth, wearing a twisted headband, white and red loincloth, and striped cape.
  • [29.10] He stands in front of a palace; inside is a Castilian folding chair.
  • [29.11] There are many offerings of food: four live turkeys,
  • [29.12] four live turkeys,
  • [29.13] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [29.14] a low woven basket of eggs,
  • [29.15] a spit-roasted turkey,
  • [29.16] a spit-roasted turkey,
  • [29.17] a spit-roasted turkey, and
  • [29.18] a spit-roasted turkey.
  • [29.19] [All this is shown in the very center of the Lienzo; the New Sun is clearly visible from a distance].
  • [30.1] Cortés then calls for supplies and reinforcements from three places on the coast: First, supplies are sent from Chalchicueyecan
  • [30.2] (which means “Place of Greenstone”).
  • [30.3] Here a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat, red doublet and white hose sends indigenous porters on the road to Tlaxcala:
  • [30.4] a commoner wearing only a white loincloth carries shields on his back with a tumpline; and
  • [30.5] a commoner wearing only a white loincloth carries shields and a bundle on his back with a tumpline; and
  • [30.6] a commoner wearing only a white loincloth carries spears on his back with a tumpline; and
  • [30.7] a commoner wearing only a white loincloth carries a cannon on his back with a tumpline.
  • [30.8] A cannon and an anchor rest on a wooden platform.
  • [30.9] Here there is a disaster in crossing a river: many people drown.
  • [30.10] Second, supplies are sent from Huitzilapan (which means “Place of the Hummingbird”).
  • [30.11] Here, a bearded Castilian in a black hat, red doublet, and red hose, standing elegantly, sends indigenous porters on the road to Tlaxcala:
  • [30.12] a commoner, wearing only a white loincloth, carries shields on his back with a tumpline; and
  • [30.13] a commoner, wearing only a white loincloth, carries spears and a water gourd on his back with a tumpline; and
  • [30.14] a commoner, wearing only a white loincloth, carries shields on his back with a tumpline; and
  • [30.15] a commoner, wearing only a white loincloth, carries a leather case on his back with a tumpline.
  • [30.16] Third, supplies are sent from Hill of the Cross [Villa Rica, the Castilian coastal settlement?]:
  • [30.17] Here there is conflict: a clean-shaven Castilian in a white hat, red doublet, and white hose grasps a commoner wearing only a loincloth by the hair (like a battle captive) and with his other hand raises a crude club in the air.
  • [30.18] A noble wearing a white loincloth and cape looks on and speaks. Meanwhile, indigenous porters are sent on the road to Tlaxcala:
  • [30.19] two commoners, wearing only white loincloths, carry a bundle of spears; and
  • [30.20] a commoner, wearing only a white loincloth, carries a bundle on his back with a tumpline; and
  • [30.21] two commoners, wearing only white loincloths, carry a cannon and anchor on a wooden platform; and
  • [30.22] a fifth commoner, wearing only a loincloth, holding a staff, carries a bearded Castilian on his back with a tumpline, (like a prehispanic bride or sacred bundle).
  • [30.23] Here the three footprinted paths converge, and continue on to Tlaxcala.
  • [31.1] [early August 1520] [Nine battles against Tlaxcala’s neighbors in the Valley of Puebla] Çacatepec The Tlaxcalan and Castilian army leaves Tlaxcala; In Zacatepec a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [31.2] Barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [31.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, brown doublet, and black hose, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded white horse; and
  • [31.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and yellow loincloth, and blue bodysuit, bearing a Conical Heron Feather battle standard on his back, wielding a round three disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [31.5] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red and white loincloth, and quilted armor, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [31.6] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and white bodysuit, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [31.7] A warrior lies dead on the ground, still clutching his round shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [31.8] To the right, the people of Zacatepec defend their town: a warrior, falling backward, clutching his round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [31.9] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and mace; and
  • [31.10] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband, and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and mace; and
  • [31.11] a warrior, wearing only a feathered headdress, orange loincloth, and quiver, pulling back his bow.
  • [31.12] All this takes place at “Hill of Grass.”
  • [32.1] [The Sixth Row] quecholac In Quecholac a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [32.2] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [32.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear; and
  • [32.4] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, labret, white and red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit; wielding a round Silver Stones shield; and
  • [32.5] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot with a Quetzal Feather Horns ornament, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, curved labret, and red feathered bodysuit, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [32.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a golden metal helmet and yellow feathered bodysuit, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a white horse.
  • [32.7] A warrior lies dead on the ground, wearing a white loincloth and yellow feathered bodysuit, arm bound in his round shield, his obsidian-bladed sword at his side;
  • [32.8] another warrior falls to the ground dead , gushing blood, wearing quilted cotton armor, his round shield useless, a mace falling from his hand.
  • [32.9] To the right, the people of Quechola defend their town: a warrior, wearing earspools and a labret, wielding a round alternating stripes shield; and
  • [32.10] a warrior, wearing earspools, yellow loincloth, and red feathered bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [32.11] a warrior, wearing earspools, yellow loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament - Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [32.12] a warrior, wearing earspools, white loincloth and white bodysuit, wielding a round shield Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [32.13] All this takes place at “On the Water of the Quecholli Bird.”
  • [33.1] acatzinco In Acatzinco a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [33.2] Arrows fly through the air.
  • [33.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, orange loincloth, and orange feathered bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [33.4] a warrior, wearing a red and white loincloth and blue bodysuit, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [33.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a grey horse.
  • [33.6] Stones and arrows are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground;
  • [33.7] a warrior in a red loincloth lies dead on the ground.
  • [33.8] To the right, the people of Acatzinco defend their town: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a white loincloth and orange bodysuit, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [33.9] a warrior, wearing earspools; and
  • [33.10] a warrior, wearing a red Huaxtec costume; wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [33.11] a warrior, wearing earspools; and
  • [33.12] a warrior, wearing earspools and a white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield.
  • [33.13] All this takes place at “In the Small Reeds.”
  • [34.1] tepeyacac In Tepeyacac a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [34.2] Arrows fly through the air.
  • [34.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round shield; and
  • [34.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, bearing an Umbilical Cord battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [34.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a branded brown horse; and
  • [34.6] a warrior, wearing a red and white loincloth and yellow Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [34.7] Stones and arrows are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [34.8] To the right, the people of Tepeyacac defend their town: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing an orange loincloth and red bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [34.9] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wielding a round two disk shield; and
  • [34.10] a warrior, wearing earspools, wielding a round striped shield and mace; and
  • [34.11] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [34.12] All this takes place at "On the Nose [Beginning] of the Hill."
  • [35.1] tecamacalco In Tecamachalco, a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [35.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [35.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow and red loincloth, and yellow feathered tunic, bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [35.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet; and
  • [35.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a white horse; and
  • [35.6] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow quilted armor, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [35.7] Arrows and stones are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [35.8] To the right, the people of Tecamachalco defend their town: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing only a twisted headband, white and red loincloth, and jaguar skin quiver, pulling back his bow; and
  • [35.9] a warrior, wearing a white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [35.10] a warrior, wearing a white headband and earspools, wielding a round hands (?) shield; and
  • [35.11] a warrior, wielding a round shield and mace.
  • [35.12] All this takes place at "On the Stone Jaw."
  • [36.1] quauhtinchan In Quauhtinchan, a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [36.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a brown horse (the horse’s hooves are shod in iron); and
  • [36.3] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and brown doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear; and
  • [36.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a yellow hat, red doublet, and yellow hose, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [36.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and white bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [36.6] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [36.7] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [36.8] To the right, the people of Quauhtinchan defend their town: a warrior falls backward, hair tied in two horns like a woman, wearing only a white loincloth, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [36.9] a warrior, wearing only a white loincloth, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and mace, and
  • [36.10] a warrior, wearing only a loincoth and quiver, wielding a round two disk shield and pulling back his bow.
  • [36.11] All this takes place at "Home of the Eagles."
  • [37.1] tepexic In Tepexic, a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [37.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a grey horse (the horse’s hooves are shod in iron); and
  • [37.3] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat and metal armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword, charging on a brown horse; and
  • [37.4] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, white and orange loincloth, and yellow quilted armor, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [37.5] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and yellow tunic, bearing a Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [37.6] Shields are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [37.7] To the right, the people of Tepexic defend their town: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a white loincloth and quilted armor, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and mace; and
  • [37.8] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing only a white loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and mace; and
  • [37.9] a warrior, wearing only a white loincloth, pulling back his bow.
  • [37.10] All this takes place at "On the Crag."
  • [38.1] quauhq[ue]cholan In Quauhquechollan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [38.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded brown horse; and
  • [38.3] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot with a Quetzal Feather Horns ornament, wearing a red and white loincloth and blue bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [38.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [38.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, orange loincloth, and blue bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wearing a round Huastec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [38.6] Shields are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [38.7] On the right, the people of Quauhquechollan defend their town: a warrior, wearing only a white loincloth, wielding a round two disk shield and mace, falling backward, gushing blood; and
  • [38.8] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, white loincloth, and red bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and mace; and
  • [38.9] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and mace.
  • [38.10] All this takes place at "Place of Many Feather-Tufted Eagles."
  • [39.1] [The Seventh Row] ytztzocan In Itztzocan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [39.2] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [39.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, and white tunic, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [39.4] a warrior, his hair tied in a topknot, wearing a curved labret, red and white loincloth, and yellow feathered bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [39.5] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [39.6] On the right, the people of Itztzocan defend their town: a warrior, wearing thin red earspools, white sashes, and a white loincloth, a round shield strapped to his arm, dropping his obsidian-bladed sword, fleeing from his attackers; and
  • [39.7] a warrior, wearing thin red earspools, a labret, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [39.8] a warrior, wearing thin red earspools, a labret, yellow and white loincloth, and blue feathered bodysuit, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [39.9] a warrior, wearing thin red earspools, a yellow loincloth, and blue bodysuit, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword (?).
  • [39.10] On the steps of a building, a warrior, wearing thin red earspools, a labret, and yellow bodysuit wields a round Huaxtec Nose Oranament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [39.11] All this takes place at "Place Pertaining to Obsidian."
  • [40.1] [30 December 1520] [The campaign moves to the west, towards the Valley of Mexico] matlatzinco In Matlatzinco a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [40.2] Arrows fly through the air.
  • [40.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing earspools, a labret, red loincloth, and blue bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round face-sunbeam shield; and
  • [40.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, a labret, and yellow quilted armor, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [40.5] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, curved labret, white loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [40.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and blue hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [40.7] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [40.8] On the right, the people of Matlatzinco defend their town: a warrior, wearing a white loincloth and yellow quilted armor, drops his round reed shield and obsidian-bladed sword, turning to flee from the attackers; and
  • [40.9] a warrior, wearing earspools, a white and red loincloth, and white bodysuit, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [40.10] a warrior, wearing earspools; and
  • [40.11] a warrior, wearing earspools and a white bodysuit, wielding a round Silver Stones shield.
  • [40.12] All this takes place at "On the Small Net."
  • [41.1] [31 December 1520] tetzcohco In Texcoco preparations are made cross the lake and attack Tenochtitlan once again.
  • [41.2] A commoner, wearing a white hipcloth, carries a leather case on his back with a tumpline;
  • [41.3] a commoner, wearing a white hipcloth, carries a leather case on his back with a tumpline:
  • [41.4] they are filling a canoe with supplies.
  • [41.5] A Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword, and
  • [41.6] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and quilted armor, both watch as
  • [41.7] Cortés, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, mounted on a brown horse, gives commands.
  • [41.8] A battle is fought: a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, grey doublet, and grey hose charges on a white horse; he spears
  • [41.9] a warrior, wearing a red and white loincloth and yellow bodysuit, bearing a yellow Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back.
  • [41.10] A warrior, wearing a feathered headband and orange bodysuit, bearing an orange Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wields a round flower shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [41.11] In a temple are displayed the sacred bundle of the god Tezcatlipoca, (he who has striped face paint, who wears a mirror around his neck),
  • [41.12] and the severed head of a brown horse (another strange being from distant realms).
  • [41.13] A bearded Castilian, wearing an orange hat, orange doublet, and white hose, speaks before the temple.
  • [41.14] A man wearing a feathered headband, earspools, white loincloth, and orange cape holds a cross Banner battle standard.
  • [41.15] Here the text says: Tetzcoco yavani Ixtlilxochitzin "Ixtlilxochitl conducted them (the invading army) through the streets of Texcoco." (Ixtlilxochitl is the brother of the king of Texcoco).
  • [42.1] [Spring 1521] Four cities are captured on the shores of Lake Texcoco, four cities surrounding the central island of Tenochtitlan.
  • [42.2] To the east (?) of the island is Tecpatepec; here, at "Hill of Flints," are
  • [42.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and labret, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield; and
  • [42.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [42.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and brown hose, wielding a metal spear, mounted on a brown horse.
  • [42.6] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [42.7] To the north of the island is Tlacopán; here, at "On the Tacoxochitl Flower," are
  • [42.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [42.9] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [42.10] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and white hose, wielding a metal spear, mounted on a brown horse; and
  • [42.11] a bearded Castilian, wearing a white hat and brown doublet.
  • [42.12] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [42.13] To the west of the island is Coyoacan; here, at "Place of the Lean Coyotes" are
  • [42.14] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [42.15] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield; and
  • [42.16] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband , wielding an obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [42.17] a bearded Castilian, head bared, wearing a brown doublet and brown hose, wielding a metal spear, mounted on a brown horse; and
  • [42.18] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [42.19] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [42.20] To the south of the island is Xochimilco; here, at "On the Fields of Flowers," are
  • [42.21] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [42.22] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit; and
  • [42.23] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and brown hose, mounted on a brown horse.
  • [42.24] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [42.25] In the center of everything is the island of Tenochtitlan, protected by armed warriors in canoes.
  • [43.1] [late May 1521] As preparations are made for a second assault on Tenochtitlan, a group of Tlaxcalan warriors decides to return to Tlaxcala. These defectors are pursued by Tlaxcalans and Castilians:
  • [43.2] Here the text says yehahui, "They Surround Them."
  • [43.3] A bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and brown doublet, wielding a metal spear, mounted on a brown horse; and
  • [43.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, brown doublet and white hose, wielding a metal spear, mounted on a white horse; and
  • [43.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat and red doublet, wielding a round shield and metal spear, mounted on a brown horse; all follow the path of the defecting warriors.
  • [43.6] A warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing earspools and a blue tunic, wielding a round Jaguar’s Foot shield and an obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [43.7] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and blue quilted bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [43.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, blue and red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, brearing the cross Banner battle standard on his back wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian bladed sword all follow the path of the defecting warriors.
  • [43.9] The pursuers catch up with the defectors: a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, red doublet, and yellow hose, takes an indigenous warrior captive, grabbing him by his hair.
  • [43.10] The captive wears a white loincloth and blue bodysuit, wields an obsidian-bladed sword, and holds a sheet of paper (?).
  • [43.11] Here the text reads espia traidora, "treacherous spy."
  • [43.12] A bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, yellow doublet, and brown hose, speaks to
  • [43.13] a Tlaxcalan defector, wearing a twisted headband, red and white loincloth, and blue bodysuit, holding sheets of paper (?) in both hands.
  • [43.14] Here the text reads Mixcotecatl Tlaxcalteco Capitan: "Mixcotecatl, Tlaxcalan Captain."
  • [43.15] All this takes place on the banks of a river (?).
  • [44.1] [late May 1521] couatlichan In Couatlichan, a lakeside town to the south of Texcoco, the Mexica come ashore to attack the gathered Tlaxcalan and Castilian warriors.
  • [44.2] Warriors in yellow and blue bodysuits lie dead on the steps of a building.
  • [44.3] Other men fight against the attacking Mexica: a Castilian, charging on a brown horse;
  • [44.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and brown hose, wielding an oval Castilian shield and spear, charging on a brown horse; and
  • [44.5] a warrior, wearing a blue bodysuit, bearing a battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [44.6] a warrior, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [44.7] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow tunic, bearing the Tlaxcalan Heron battle standard of Tizatlan on his back, wielding a round sun shield.
  • [44.8] The Mexica come ashore in canoes, wielding round Huaxtec Hawk Scrach shields and obsidian-bladed swords;
  • [44.9] the Mexica coming ashore in canoes, wearing Coyote costumes, wielding round shields and obsidian-bladed swords.
  • [45.1] The attack on Tenochtitlan begins: a Castilian ship sails on Lake Texcoco, armed with cannons,
  • [45.2] filled with Tlaxcalan and Castilian warriors,
  • [45.3] carrying Malinche and Cortés.
  • [45.4] The ship brings the invaders to one of the causeways crossing the lake, connecting Tenochtitlan to the mainland.
  • [45.5] A clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [45.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a pink hat, pink doublet, and brown hose, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [45.7] Malinche, wearing a brown huipil and skirt, wielding a round Castilian shield
  • [45.8] all attack a skull rack built on this causeway.
  • [45.9] The place is called teçiquauhtitlan: "The Goddess Toci Between the Trees (?)"
  • [45.10] In front of this skull rack, a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword, and
  • [45.11] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword, both attack the defending Mexica.
  • [45.12] Many warriors come out from Tenochtitlan, defending their city on the causeway: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian bladed sword; and
  • [45.13] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [45.14] a warrior, wearing a Jaguar costume, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and obsidian bladed sword.
  • [45.15] Other warriors approach the causeway in canoes. In one canoe fights a warrior wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [45.16] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [45.17] In another canoe fights a warrior wearing a Coyote costume, wielding a round three disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [45.18] In a third canoe fight a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [45.19] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [46.1] [The Eighth Row] From the causeways, the invading warriors enter the city of Tenochtitlan. Here the text reads yc q[u]inn valtocaque caltzalan: "They have taken the streets which are between the houses."
  • [46.2] The invading warriors charge into the city, surrounded on all sides by walls: a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, brown doublet, and beige hose, wielding a metal spear and charging on a beige horse; and
  • [46.3] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear and charging on a beige horse; and
  • [46.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and earspools, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [46.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and earspools, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [46.6] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, Quetzal Feather Horns headdress, and orange bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [46.7] a Tlaxcalan, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a twisted headband and curved cheek ornament; and
  • [46.8] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, yellow loincloth, and red bodysuit, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [46.9] Stones fly through the air, barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [46.10] Here is one of the houses of Tenochtitlan.
  • [46.11] The invaders are attacked on all sides. Above, attacking from the city walls, are a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [46.12] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [46.13] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [46.14] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [46.15] Here three warriors defend the houses of Tenochtitlan: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [46.16] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [46.17] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch shield.
  • [46.18] Here three warriors defend the houses of Tenochtitlan: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [46.19] a warrior, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a feathered headband, wielding an obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [46.20] a warrior, wearing only a headband and white loincloth, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [46.21] Below, attacking from the city walls, are a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and orange bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch Shield; and
  • [46.22] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and labret; and
  • [46.23] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and red bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch Shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [47.1] On June 30, 1521, the first anniversary of the Noche Triste, Cortés commands a general assault. Here the text says copolco zoimicca yn capitan: "Copolco: Here the Captain was wounded."
  • [47.2] On a causeway, surrounded by water, a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and orange bodysuit, bearing an orange Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [47.3] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and orange bodysuit, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [47.4] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, labret, white loincloth, and red Huaxtec costume, bearing an orange Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed spear all attack the Captian, Hernán Cortés.
  • [47.5] Cortés, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal sword, falls backward wounded, blood gushing from his face.
  • [47.6] Behind him is a canal, Castilians and Tlaxcalans and feather-headdressed warriors thrash in the turquoise waters, drowning.
  • [47.7] They are attacked by warriors in canoes, wearing feathered headbands, wielding round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shields, alternating stripes shields, and obsidian-bladed spears.
  • [47.8] They are attacked by warriors in canoes, wearing feathered headbands, wielding round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shields, and obsidian-bladed spears.
  • [47.9] Tlaxcalans and Castilians thrash in the turquoise waters, drowning.
  • [47.10] Here a white horse is pulled from the water
  • [47.11] by a bearded Castilian, wearing an orange hat. orange shirt, and yellow pants
  • [47.12] Back on the causeway, a cannon shoots forth flames.
  • [47.13] Rocks fly through the air, barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [47.14] Cortés has been rescued by indigenous warriors: wearing a metal helmet and armor, he supports himself on the shoulders of
  • [47.15] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a labret and a red feathered bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back; and
  • [47.16] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a blue bodysuit, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back, wielding an Eagle’s Foot Shield.
  • [47.17] They are defended by a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted feathered headband and orange bodysuit, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [47.18] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, wielding a spear.
  • [47.19] Here dead warriors are piled together, their eyes closed, gushing blood; here round shields are piled together: some woven, some plain, some with alternating stripes.
  • [48.1] [13 August 1521] Here the text says yc polinhq[ue] mexiica: "Thus the Mexica were defeated."
  • [48.2] A Castilian, wearing a grey hat and grey hose, holding a turkey; and
  • [48.3] Malinche, translating, wearing a pink huipil and skirt; and
  • [48.4] Cortés, wearing a grey hat (adorned with quetzal plumes), grey doublet, and grey hose, seated on a folding chair
  • [48.5] all hold court at the palace of Aztacoatzin "Reverend White Water Jar."
  • [48.6] (Here this name is written: *a-ko-* ), Here the Mexica surrender to their conquerors.
  • [48.7] In attendance are four conquering warriors, who watch as the Mexica nobles surrender: a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, grey doublet, and red hose, holding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear; and
  • [48.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and orange bodysuit, holding a round face shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [48.9] a warrior, wearing a feathered eagle costume, bearing an Umbilical Cord battle standard on his back, holding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [48.10] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, orange loincloth, and feathered orange bodysuit, bearing a two banner battle standard on his back, holding round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [48.11] Two Mexica nobles surrender to Cortés and Malinche: a warrior, wearing a feathered headdress and orange bodysuit, bearing a Quetzal Feather battle standard on his back, holding no weapon, only a round Twisted Gourd shield; and
  • [48.12] a warrior [Cuauhtemoc, Moctezuma’s successor?], wearing a white headband, yellow and red loincloth, and blue bodysuit, holding no weapon, only a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield.
  • [48.13] Also present are noblewomen and men of the Mexica court: they had been captured on Lake Texcoco in a canoe: Lady Tecuhichpo, wife of Cuauhtemoc, wearing a twisted headband and pink huipil
  • [48.14] (here her name is written: *te-ICHCA-po* ; which means “Lord’s Maiden”); and
  • [48.15] a woman of the court, hair tied in the female two horns style, wearing a pink huipil; and
  • [48.16] a man, wearing a headband; and
  • [48.17] a man, wearing a Castilian doublet with white collar (?).
  • [48.18] A bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and brown hose
  • [48.19] speaks to three Mexica on the roof of a house: two wear feathered headbands.
  • [49.1] [Hernán Cortés’ expedition to the northeast, 1523] metztitlan In Metztitlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [49.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and orange feathered tunic, bearing the Tlaxcalan Heron battle standard of Tizatlan on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [49.3] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and brown hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a branded white horse; and
  • [49.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and yellow loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [49.5] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [49.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, wearing only a yellow loincloth, his round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword at his side.
  • [49.7] On the right, the people of Metztitlan defend their town: a warrior, wearing a double red feathers headband and beige loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [49.8] a warrior, wearing a double red feathers headband and loincloth, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [49.9] a warrior, wearing a white headband and bodysuit, bearing an orange Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield; and
  • [49.10] a warrior, wearing a white headband and quiver, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow.
  • [49.11] All this takes place at "Place of the Moon."
  • [50.1] [Hernán Cortés’ expedition to the northeast, 1523] panco In Panco a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [50.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [50.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and orange bodysuit, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Curved Labret shield; and
  • [50.4] a warrior, his hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband, red loincloth, and blue bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back, wielding a round three disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [50.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a white horse; and
  • [50.6] a warrior, wearing a yellow and red loincloth and orange Coyote costume, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [50.7] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, orange loincloth, and red bodysuit, bearing a yellow Huaxtec Headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [50.8] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a white loincloth, his round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian bladed spear before him.
  • [50.9] On the right, the people of Panuco defend their town: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, orange loincloth, and orange bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed spear.
  • [50.10] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [50.11] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield; and
  • [50.12] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [50.13] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament-Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [50.14] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and quiver, pulling back his bow.
  • [50.15] All this takes place at "On the Banner."
  • [51.1] [Hernán Cortés' expedition to the northeast, 1523] ayotochchuitlatlan In Ayotochchuitlatlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [51.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [51.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and red bodysuit, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round skull shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [51.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and orange bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Canid Deity battle standard of Tepeticpac on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [51.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse; and
  • [51.6] a bearded Castilian, Cortés himself, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse.
  • [51.7] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground;
  • [51.8] a warrior lies dead on the ground, wearing an orange sash and red loincloth, clutching his alternating stripes shield, his mace behind him.
  • [51.9] On the right, the people of Ayotochchuitlatlan defend their town: a warrior, wearing only a white headband, white loincloth, and jaguar-skin quiver, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [51.10] a warrior, wearing only a white headband, white loincloth, and jaguar-skin quiver, wielding a round shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [51.11] a warrior, wearing a white headband and white bodysuit, wielding a round woven shield.
  • [51.12] All this takes place at "Place of Much Armadillo Excrement."
  • [51.13] Here is a barrier of water, flowing up to the watery scenes in the row above; this is the last time Cortés appears in the Lienzo.
  • [52.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] michuacá In Michoacan a battle of conquest is fought;
  • [52.2] an indigenous man is executed by hanging.
  • [52.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, Nuño de Guzmán himself, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword, charging on a brown horse; and
  • [52.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a grey horse; and
  • [52.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and white loincloth, and blue quilted armor, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [52.6] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and, red and white loincloth, and orange feathered bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Quetzal Feather battle standard of Quiahuiztlan on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [52.7] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and yellow loincloth, and blue bodysuit, wielding a round Silver Stones shield; and
  • [52.8] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, red and yellow loincloth, and yellow feathered tunic, bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [52.9] a savage Castilian dog, leaping to kill.
  • [52.10] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, wearing a feathered headband, clutching his round woven shield.
  • [52.11] On the right, the people of Michoacan defend their town: a warrior, wearing a feathered headdress, long beige robes, and jaguar-skin quiver, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [52.12] a warrior, wearing a feathered headdress, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [52.13] a warrior, wearing a feathered headdress, wielding a round woven shield.
  • [52.14] All this takes place at "Place of Many Fish."
  • [53.1] [The Ninth Row] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] xalixco In Jalisco a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [53.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing an Umbilical Cord battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [53.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, a yellow feathered tunic, bearing the Tlaxcalan Quetzal Feather battle standard of Quiahuiztlan on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [53.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and blue bodysuit, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [53.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [53.6] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground;
  • [53.7] a warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, wearing only a white loincloth, clutching his round woven shield, his mace fallen by his side.
  • [53.8] On the right, the people of Jalisco defend their town: a warrior, wearing a white loincloth and orange bodysuit, bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and club.
  • [53.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [53.10] a warrior, wearing a red-feathered headdress and nose ornament, wielding a round woven shield and pointed stick; and
  • [53.11] a warrior, wearing only a white loincloth, bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [53.12] a dead warrior, gushing blood.
  • [53.13] All this takes place at "On the Eye [Plain] of Sand."
  • [54.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] tototlan In Tototlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [54.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow feathered bodysuit, bearing a flowered battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and metal sword; and
  • [54.3] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back,
  • [54.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and pink Doublet, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear; and
  • [54.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [54.6] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [54.7] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [54.8] On the right, the people of Tototlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a white headband, white loincloth, and quiver, pulling back his bow.
  • [54.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [54.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [54.11] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [54.12] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [54.13] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a red feathered headdress and orange tunic, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [54.14] All this takes place at "Place of Many Birds."
  • [55.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] tonallan In Tonallan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [55.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, and red bodysuit, bearing an eagle claw battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and spear; and
  • [55.3] a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat; and
  • [55.4] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and orange feathered bodysuit, bearing a conical battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [55.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet, black doublet, and orange hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [55.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white headband, orange feather nose ornament, and white loincloth.
  • [55.7] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [55.8] On the right, the people of Tototlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a white headband and yellow and white loincloth, bearing a Crackling Fire (?) battle standard on his back, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [55.9] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a white headband, beige loincloth, and jaguar skin quiver, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow.
  • [55.10] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [55.11] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace; and
  • [55.12] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband and red bodysuit, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [55.13] All this takes place at "Place of Sun."
  • [56.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] ...chcatla In Ychcatlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [56.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [56.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec spiral shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [56.4] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a yellow and red loincloth and orange feathered bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Quetzal Feather battle standard of Quiahuiztlan on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [56.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and blue hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a branded brown horse.
  • [56.6] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground;
  • [56.7] a warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white loincloth and orange bodysuit, his round butterfly (?) shield and mace fallen by his side.
  • [56.8] On the right, the people of Tototlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a white headband and loincloth, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [56.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [56.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white headband, bearing a Quetzal Feather battle standard on his back, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [56.11] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white headband, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and mace.
  • [56.12] All this takes place at "Place of Much Cotton."
  • [57.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] tlacotla In Tlacotlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [57.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [57.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing an Umbilical Cord battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [57.4] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [57.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [57.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, crushed under horses' hooves, clutching his round Gold Disk shield, his mace fallen by his side.
  • [57.7] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [57.8] On the right, the people of Tlacotlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a white headband and white loincloth, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and mace.
  • [57.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [57.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Gold Disk shield, bow, obsidian-bladed spear, and mace; and
  • [57.11] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [57.12] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and mace.
  • [57.13] All this takes place at "Place of Many Tlacoxochitl Flowers."
  • [58.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] xochipillá In Xochipillan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [58.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [58.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband and orange feathered bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [58.4] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back; and
  • [58.5] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband and yellow bodysuit bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [58.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword, charging on a beige horse; and
  • [58.7] a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, grey doublet, and grey hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [58.8] Shields are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [58.9] a warrior lies dead upon the ground.
  • [58.10] On the right, the people of Tlacotlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a brown headband and white loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [58.11] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [58.12] a warrior, wearing only a quiver, pulling back his bow; and
  • [58.13] a warrior, wielding a round shield; and
  • [58.14] a warrior, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [58.15] a warrior, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [58.16] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [58.17] a warrior, his face scarified, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [58.18] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round shield and pulling back his bow.
  • [58.19] All this takes place at "Place of the God Xochipilli."
  • [59.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] apcolco In Apozolco a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [59.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a white horse; and
  • [59.3] a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat and red doublet, wielding a metal sword, charging on a beige horse; and
  • [59.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and quilted armor, bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec spiral shield; and
  • [59.5] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, yellow loincloth, and yellow quilted armor, bearing a conical Huaxtec headdress battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [59.6] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing earspools, yellow loincloth, and yellow quilted armor, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [59.7] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband,earspools, red and yellow loincloth, and blue bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back; and
  • [59.8] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, red and yellow loincloth, and yellow feathered bodysuit, bearing a Quetzal Feather Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [59.9] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [59.10] On the right, the people of Apozolco defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a beige headband and white loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [59.11] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [59.12] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [59.13] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace; and
  • [59.14] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [59.15] All this takes place at "On the Water of the ?"
  • [60.1] [The Tenth Row] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] xonacatla In Xonacatlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [60.2] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [60.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and orange doublet, wielding a round Down Ball shield and metal sword; and
  • [60.4] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, a red vertical stripe across his eye, wearing a curved labret, yellow loincloth, and feathered yellow bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [60.5] a warrior, wearing a green feathered Coyote costume, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [60.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, red doublet, and white hose, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [60.7] Shields and maces are scattered on the Ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [60.8] On the right, the people of Xonacatlan defend their town. From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [60.9] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband, beige sash, and beige loincloth, pulling back his bow; and
  • [60.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a feathered headband and beige loincloth bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [60.11] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round woven shield.
  • [60.12] All this takes place at "Place of Many Onions."
  • [61.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] tlaltenápá In Tlaltenanpan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [61.2] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [61.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and red tunic, bearing a battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [61.4] a warrior, wearing a pink feathered headdress,crescent nose ornament, labret, and yellow tunic, wielding a round Huaxtec spiral shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [61.5] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [61.6] Two warriors lie dead on the ground, gushing blood, their hair long and unbound, wearing only white headbands and white loincloths, still clutching their shields.
  • [61.7] On the right, the people of Tlaltenanpan defend their town. Behind a stony cliff fight
  • [61.8] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a feathered headband, red loincloth, and yellow tunic, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [61.9] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband, wielding a round alternating stripes shield; and
  • [61.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white headband, red loincloth, and yellow tunic, wielding an alternating stripes shield and a mace.
  • [61.11] All this takes place at "On the Terraces."
  • [62.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] tonáycacan In Tonanicacan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [62.2] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [62.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, wearing a yellow feathered Coyote costume, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [62.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow and red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Canid Deity battle standard of Tepeticpac on his back, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [62.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and red bodysuit, wielding a round checkered shield; and
  • [62.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [62.7] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, crushed under horses' hooves, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a white headband and yellow loincloth.
  • [62.8] On the right, the people of Tonanicacan defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a red and beige loincloth and eagle claw quiver, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow.
  • [62.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [62.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband and red tunic, pulling back his bow; and
  • [62.11] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [62.12] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband, wielding a Gold Disk shield and mace.
  • [62.13] All this takes place at "Place of the Goddess Tonantzin."
  • [63.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Xallipatlavayá In Xallipatlahuayan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [63.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [63.3] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, white loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing the Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [63.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, grey doublet, and grey hose, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse.
  • [63.5] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [63.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, crushed under horses' hooves, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a feathered headband and beige loincloth;
  • [63.7] a warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, his hair long and unbound, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a red loincloth.
  • [63.8] On the right, the people of Xalliplatlahuayan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a white headband, white loincloth, and jaguar skin quiver, pulling back his bow.
  • [63.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [63.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound wearing a red feathered headband, beige sash, and red loincloth, wielding a round jaguar skin shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [63.11] other warriors, hiding behind round woven shields.
  • [63.12] All this takes place at "Place Where There Is a Sandy Plain."
  • [64.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] tecomatlá In Tecomatlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [64.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and orange bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield; and
  • [64.3] a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing an orange bodysuit, bearing a Claw battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [64.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and yellow feathered bodysuit, bearing a Red Quetzal Feather battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [64.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, grey doublet, and grey hose, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse.
  • [64.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, crushed under horses' hooves.
  • [64.7] On the right, the people of Tecomatlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a red feathered headdress and, yellow loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [64.8] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [64.9] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound wearing a red feathered headband, sash, and jaguar skin quiver, pulling back his bow; and
  • [64.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [64.11] All this takes place at "Place of Many Gourd Cups."
  • [65.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Çillan In Çillan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [65.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [65.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow quilted armor, bearing a jaguar skin Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [65.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and yellow loincloth, and feathered orange bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [65.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and yellow loincloth, and blue bodysuit, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [65.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat, red doublet, and red hose, wielding a metal sword, charging on a brown horse; and
  • [65.7] a bearded Castilian, wearing a grey hat, grey doublet, and grey hose, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [65.8] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [65.9] On the right, the people of Çillan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a yellow loincloth, bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [65.10] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [65.11] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wielding a round woven shield and mace; and
  • [65.12] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [65.13] All this takes place at "Place of Many Small Shells."
  • [66.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] aztatlan In Aztatlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [66.2] Arrows fly thorugh the air.
  • [66.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, wearing a Quetzal Feather Horns headdress; and feathered orange tunic, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [66.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and blue quilted armor, bearing a quetzal feather battle standard on his back, wielding an obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [66.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a beige hat and red doublet, wielding a round Castilian shield, charging on a brown horse; and
  • [66.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and black hose, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [66.7] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [66.8] On the right, the people of Aztatlan defend their town: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, earspools, and yellow loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [66.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [66.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace; and
  • [66.11] a warrior, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [66.12] All this takes place at "Place of Many Herons."
  • [67.1] [The Eleventh Row] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Chiyametlan In Chiyametlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [67.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword; and
  • [67.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, curved labret, earspools, red and yellow loincloth, and yellow feathered bodysuit, bearing an eagle claw battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed spear; and
  • [67.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, labret, yellow quilted armor, and quiver, pulling back his bow; and
  • [67.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [67.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a white headband and beige loincloth, clutching his round shield, his obsidian-bladed sword fallen before him;
  • [67.7] Stones and weapons are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground, gushing blood.
  • [67.8] On the right, the people of Chiyametlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white headband, white sash, and beige loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [67.9] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a red feathered headdress, red feather nose ornament, yellow tunic, beige loincloth, and jaguar skin leggings, wielding a round alternating stripes jaguar skin shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [67.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white headband and beige sash, wielding a round alternating stripes shield.
  • [67.11] All this takes place at "Place of Many Chia Plants."
  • [68.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Cuezallan In Cuezallan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [68.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [68.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, labret, earspools, yellow loincloth, and orange bodysuit, bearing a Red Quetzal Feather battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [68.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing a jaguar skin Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round jaguar skin-bordered shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [68.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [68.6] On the right, the people of Cuezallan defend their town: a warrior, fleeing a horse's hooves, wearing a red feathered headdress, white sash, white loincloth, and leggings, holding a round shield and mace; and
  • [68.7] a warrior, wearing only a beige headband andwhite loincloth, wielding a round checkered shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [68.8] a warrior, shouting, wearing a red feathered headdress, beige loincloth. yellow tunic, and quiver, wielding a round checkered shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [68.9] a warrior, wearing a beige headband, wielding a round checkered shield and pulling back his bow.
  • [68.10] All this takes place at "Place of Many of Quetzal Feathers."
  • [69.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Colihpan In Colihpan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [69.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and metal sword; and
  • [69.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and metal sword; and
  • [69.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse; and
  • [69.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, spearing a fallen warrior, charging on a branded brown horse.
  • [69.6] Stones are scattered on the ground; a dismembered body lies on the ground, speared.
  • [69.7] On the right, the people of Colihpan defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a feathered headband, yellow loincloth, and quiver, pulling back his bow; and
  • [69.8] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a yellow headband, pulling back his bow; and
  • [69.9] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a red feathered headdress and yellow and red loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [69.10] All this takes place at "On the Curve."
  • [70.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Colotlan In Colotlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [70.2] Arrows fly through the air.
  • [70.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot, wearing a feathered headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and metal sword; and
  • [70.4] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted feathered headband, orange and yellow loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [70.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and brown hose, wielding an oval Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded brown horse.
  • [70.6] A fallen warrior, speared, gushing blood, is crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing only an orange loincloth, round woven shield and mace at his side.
  • [70.7] On the right, the people of Colotlan defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only an orange feather nose ornament, beige sash, and beige loincloth, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [70.8] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing a white headband, yellow bodysuit, and quiver, pulling back his bow; and
  • [70.9] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round striped shield and jaguar skin mace; and
  • [70.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes and cheeks, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round striped shield and jaguar skin mace.
  • [70.11] All this takes place at "Place of Many Scorpions."
  • [71.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Colhuacan In Colhuacan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [71.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing an eagle claw battle standard on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and metal sword; and
  • [71.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, white and red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and metal sword; and
  • [71.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [71.5] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [71.6] On the right, the people of Colhuacan defend their town: a fallen warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a red feathered headdress and orange loincloth, gushing blood, jaguar skin mace fallen at his side; and
  • [71.7] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a cotton headband and red loincloth, unarmed and holding a round woven shield.
  • [71.8] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [71.9] a warrior, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield and jaguar skin mace; and
  • [71.10] a warrior, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield and jaguar skin mace; and
  • [71.11] a warrior, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield and jaguar skin mace; and
  • [71.12] a warrior, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield.
  • [71.13] All this takes place at "Place of the Colhua."
  • [72.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Tlaxichco In Tlaxichco a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [72.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [72.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, wearing a yellow feathered Jaguar costume, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [72.4] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back; and
  • [72.5] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and orange feathered bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Eagle battle standard of Ocotelolco on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and flowered obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [72.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, brown doublet, and brown hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse.
  • [72.7] Weapons are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground;
  • [72.8] a fallen warrior lies on the ground, gushing blood, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing a yellow feathered headdress and orange loincloth.
  • [72.9] On the right, the people of Tlaxichco defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes and cheeks, his hair long and unbound, wearing only an orange loincloth, bearing a Crackling Flames battle standard (?) on his back, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [72.10] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [72.11] a warrior, wearing a red feathered headdress and jaguar skin quiver, pulling back his bow; and
  • [72.12] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a red feathered headdress, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [72.13] All this takes place at "On the Plain of Splinters."
  • [73.1] 73.1 [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] Tonatiuh y uetziyan In Tonatiuh and Huetziyan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [73.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a bearded Castilian, wearing a red hat and red doublet, wielding a metal spear; and
  • [73.3] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and beige hose, wielding a round Castilian shield and metal sword, charging on a beige horse; and
  • [73.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow feathered tunic, bearing the Tlaxcalan Heron battle standard of Tizatlan on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [73.5] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with yellow downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, beige loincloth, and orange feathered bodysuit, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield.
  • [73.6] Dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [73.7] On the right, the people of Tonatiuh and Huetziyan defend their towns: a fleeing warrior, shouting, his hair long and unbound, wearing a red feathered headdress, flower earspools, and red and yellow loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [73.8] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [73.9] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a yellow headband and quiver, pulling back his bow from behind a round woven shield; and
  • [73.10] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a yellow headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [73.11] All this takes place at "Place of the Sun God."
  • [74.1] [The Twelfth Row] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] xayacatlan In Xayacatlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [74.2] Stones fly through the air; barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [74.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, hair tied in a topknot with a Quetzal Feather Horns ornament, wearing a curved labret and orange feathered bodysuit, wielding a round two disk jaguar skin shield and obsidian-bladed sword;
  • [74.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and red bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament – Cleft Quetzal Feather shield; and
  • [74.5] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with yellow downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, labret, red and yellow loincloth, and orange bodysuit, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [74.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a beige horse.
  • [74.7] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushingblood, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing an orange sash and loincloth his shield and obsidian-bladed sword fallen by his side.
  • [74.8] On the right, the people of Xayacatlan defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a yellow headband and an orange loincloth, bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back; wielding a round checkered shield and obsidian-bladed sword;
  • [74.9] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a double red feather headband and a beige loincloth, wielding a round checkered shield and spear; and
  • [74.10] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a red feathered headdress and orange loincloth, wielding a round checkered shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [74.11] All this takes place at "Place of the Mask."
  • [75.1] [Nuño de Guzmán's expedition to the northwest, 1529-1531] piyaztlan In Piyaztlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [75.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [75.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earplug,labret, red loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Masonry House battle standard on his back, wielding a round two disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [75.4] a Tlaxcalan warrior, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, yellow loincloth, and red bodysuit, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [75.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding an oval Castilian shield and metal sword, charging on a beige horse.
  • [75.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, gushing blood, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white cape and yellow loincloth, his round shield and obsidian-bladed sword fallen to the ground.
  • [75.7] On the right, the people of Piyaztlan defend their town. From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [75.8] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a double red feather headband, nose ornament, and red and yellow loincloth, wielding a round shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [75.9] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a double red feather headband and yellow loincloth, wielding a round shield.
  • [75.10] All this takes place at "Place of Many Sucking Tubes."
  • [76.1] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] tzapotitlan In Tzapotitlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [76.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [76.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, and yellow bodysuit, bearing an Umbilical Cord battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Hawk Scratch shield and metal sword; and
  • [76.4] an elderly Tlaxcalan, his face wrinkled, wearing a twisted headband, earspools, labret, orange loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and metal sword; and
  • [76.5] a brown horse; and
  • [76.6] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear and spearing a fallen warrior charging on a branded beige horse.
  • [76.7] A warrior lies dead on the ground, speared, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a beige headband and white loincloth.
  • [76.8] On the right, the people of Tzapotitlan defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a double red feather headband, red loincloth, and jaguar skin quiver, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [76.9] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a double red feather headband, orange sash, red loincloth, and jaguar skin quiver, pulling back his bow.
  • [76.10] All this takes place at "Place of Many Zapote Trees."
  • [77.1] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] Quetzaltenáco In Quetzaltenango a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [77.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [77.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with yellow downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing a banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec spiral shield and metal sword; and
  • [77.4] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with yellow downy feathers, a wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Quetzal Feather battle standard of Quiahuiztlan on his back, wielding a round Twisted Gourd shield and metal sword; and
  • [77.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse.
  • [77.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, speared, gushing blood, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a white sash and white loincloth.
  • [77.7] On the right, the people of Quetzaltenango defend their town: a warrior, wearing a double red feather headband, beige loincloth, and jaguar skin quiver, wielding a round jaguar skin Gold Disk shield and pulling back his bow.
  • [77.8] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [77.9] a warrior, wielding a round checkered shield and mace; and
  • [77.10] a warrior, wearing a brown headband, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [77.11] a warrior, wearing a brown headband, wielding a round striped shield and mace; and
  • [77.12] a warrior, wearing a brown headband, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [77.13] All this takes place at "On the Wall of the Quetzal."
  • [78.1] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] Tecpan atitlan In Tecpanatitlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [78.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [78.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and yellow bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Canid Deity battle standard of Tepeticpac on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [78.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and red Huaxtec costume, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and metal sword; and
  • [78.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal spear, charging on a branded beige horse.
  • [78.6] A warrior lies dead on the ground, speared, gushing blood, his hair long and unbound, black facepaint across his eyes, wearing only a beige headband and white loincloth.
  • [78.7] On the right, the people of Tecpanatitlan defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes and cheeks, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a beige headband and red and white loincloth, wielding a checkered shield and mace; and
  • [78.8] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a red feathered headdress, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and mace; and
  • [78.9] a warrior, wearing a white headband; and
  • [78.10] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a white headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace; and
  • [78.11] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and mace.
  • [78.12] All this takes place at "Place of the Royal Palace [Headband] Among the Water."
  • [79.1] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] Quauhtemallá In Quauhtemallan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [79.2] Stones fly through the air; arrows fly through the air.
  • [79.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, orange loincloth, and yellow bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back, wielding a round Silver Stones shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [79.4] a Tlaxcalan, hair decorated with downy feathers, wearing a twisted headband, yellow loincloth, and red Huaxtec costume, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [79.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a brown hat, red doublet, and beige hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a branded brown horse.
  • [79.6] Weapons are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground;
  • [79.7] a warrior lies dead on the ground, speared, gushing blood, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a yellow loincloth, his round shield and mace lying at his side.
  • [79.8] On the right, the people of Quauhtemallan defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing an orange feathered headdress and yellow loincloth, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [79.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [79.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes and cheeks, wearing a feathered headband, long labret, and jaguar skin quiver, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [79.11] a warrior, wearing a feathered headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [79.12] All this takes place at "Place of Many Eagles."
  • [80.1] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] ytzcuintepec In Yzquintepec a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [80.2] Barbed arrows fly through the air.
  • [80.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, red and yellow loincloth, and yellow feathered bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Quetzal Feather battle standard of Quiahuiztlan on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [80.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and blue bodysuit, bearing a Claw battle standard on his back; and
  • [80.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a black hat, black doublet, and beige hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a brown horse.
  • [80.6] Weapons are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [80.7] On the right, the people of Yzquintepec defend their town: a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a beige headband and yellow loincloth, bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back, wielding a woven round shield and obsidian-bladed sword.
  • [80.8] From the stony walls of a fortress fight
  • [80.9] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound wearing a beige headband, wielding a round woven shield and pulling back his bow; and
  • [80.10] a warrior, black facepaint across his eyes, his hair long and unbound, wearing a brown headband, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [80.11] All this takes place at "Hill of the Dog."
  • [81.1] [The Thirteenth Row] [reconstructed] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] Aticpac In Aticpac a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [81.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [81.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back; and
  • [81.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a metal spear, charging on a horse.
  • [81.5] A warrior lies dead on the ground, crushed under horses' hooves, wearing only a double feather headband and loincloth.
  • [81.6] On the right, the people of Aticpac defend their town: a warrior, wearing only a a red feathered headdress and loincloth, bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back, pulling back his bow; and
  • [81.7] a warrior, wielding a shield; and
  • [81.8] a warrior, wielding a shield.
  • [81.9] All this takes place at "On the Hill of Water."
  • [82.1] [reconstructed] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] Tlaxichco In Tlaxichco a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [82.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a warrior, wearing a bodysuit, bearing a cross Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield; and
  • [82.3] a warrior, bearing a battle standard on his back; and
  • [82.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, loincloth, and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [82.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a hat, doublet, and hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a horse.
  • [82.6] Stones and arrows are scattered on the ground.
  • [82.7] On the right, the people of Tlaxichco defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a feathered headband and loincloth, wielding a round shield; and
  • [82.8] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wielding a round shield.
  • [82.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight a warrior, wearing a headband, loincloth, and feathered bodysuit, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [82.10] a warrior, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [82.11] a warrior, wielding a round shield and mace.
  • [82.12] All this takes place at "On the Plain of Splinters."
  • [83.1] [reconstructed] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] Xonacapan In Xonacapan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [83.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Quetzal Feather battle standard of Quiahuiztlan on his back, wielding a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [83.3] a warrior, wearing a loincloth and feathered Coyote costume; and
  • [83.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a hat, doublet, and hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a horse.
  • [83.5] Rocks are scattered on the ground; dismembered bodies are scattered on the ground.
  • [83.6] On the right, the people of Xonacapan defend their town: a warrior falling backward, his hair long and unbound, wearing a headband, feathered bodysuit, and loincloth, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [83.7] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wielding a round Gold Disk shield and mace.
  • [83.8] From the stony walls of a fortress fight a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [83.9] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wielding a round shield and spear; and
  • [83.10] a warrior, wielding a shield and mace.
  • [83.11] All this takes place at "On the Water of the Onions."
  • [84.1] [reconstructed] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] nantzintlan In Nantzintlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [84.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back; and
  • [84.3] a warrior; and
  • [84.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back; and
  • [84.5] a bearded Castilian, wearing a hat, doublet, and hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a horse.
  • [84.6] Rocks and barbed arrows are scattered on the ground.
  • [84.7] On the right, the people of Nantzintlan defend their town: a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a loincloth, wielding a round shield; and
  • [84.8] a warrior.
  • [84.9] From the stony walls of a fortress fight a warrior, gesturing, his hair long and unbound, wielding a round shield; and
  • [84.10] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wielding a round shield and mace; and
  • [84.11] a warrior, his hair long and unbound; and
  • [84.12] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wielding a shield and mace.
  • [84.13] All this takes place at "Place of Many Revered Mothers."
  • [85.1] [reconstructed] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] paça In Paçan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [85.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband, loincloth, and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Hair battle standard on his back, bearing a round Huaxtec Nose Ornament shield; and
  • [85.3] a warrior in a coyote costume; and
  • [85.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a hat, doublet, and hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a horse.
  • [85.5] Rocks are scattered on the ground;
  • [85.6] a warrior lies dead on the ground, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a headband and a loincloth.
  • [85.7] On the right, the people of Paçan defend their town. From the stony walls of a fortress fight a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a headband, wielding a round shield and mace and
  • [85.8] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a headband, wielding a round shield and mace and
  • [85.9] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a headband, wielding a round shield and mace and
  • [85.10] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing a headband, wielding a round shield and mace.
  • [85.11] All this takes place at "Place of Spanish Moss."
  • [86.1] [reconstructed] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] acatepec In Acatepec a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [86.2] A stone flies through the air.
  • [86.3] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Banner battle standard on his back; and
  • [86.4] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing a Heron Feather Conical battle standard on his back; and
  • [86.5] a clean-shaven Castilian, wearing a metal helmet and armor, wielding a lobed Castilian shield and metal sword, charging on a horse.
  • [86.6] Rocks and a shield are scattered on the ground; a dismembered body lies on the ground.
  • [86.7] On the right, the people of Acatepec defend their town. From the stony walls of a fortress fight a warrior, wearing a headband wielding a shield and mace and
  • [86.8] a warrior, wearing a headband wielding a shield and mace and
  • [86.9] a warrior, wearing a headband wielding a shield and mace.
  • [86.10] All this takes place at "Hill of Reeds."
  • [87.1] [reconstructed] [Pedro de Alvarado's expedition to the southeast, 1524] Cuextlan In Cuextlan a battle of conquest is fought.
  • [87.2] On the left fight the Tlaxcalans and Castilians: a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and feathered bodysuit, bearing the Tlaxcalan Quetzal Feather battle standard of Quiahuiztlan on his back; and
  • [87.3] a Tlaxcalan, wearing a twisted headband and tunic, bearing a Five Banner battle standard on his back, wielding a round shield and obsidian-bladed sword; and
  • [87.4] a bearded Castilian, wearing a hat, doublet, and hose, wielding a metal spear, charging on a horse.
  • [87.5] Stones are scattered on the ground;
  • [87.6] a warrior lies dead on the ground, crushed under horses' hooves, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a loincloth, his round woven shield and mace lie beside him.
  • [87.7] On the right, the people of Acatepec defend their town: a warrior, wearing a feathered headband and loincloth, bearing a Crackling Fire battle standard on his back, pulling back his bow; and
  • [87.8] a warrior, his hair long and unbound, wearing only a red feathered headdress and loincloth, wielding a round woven shield and mace.
  • [87.9] All this takes place at "Place of the Huaxtecs."